FOR APPLE-TREES TO BE YEARS
SECRET 1: YOU WANT A CROP - A BRANCH OF TILTING
Sometimes healthy strong apple trees, which both water and feed, and protect from pests, stubbornly refuse to bear fruit or make them happy with a crop in a year, or even two. And the gardener puzzles, why is it so "wrong" is obtained. And the reason may lie in the wrong crown. Experienced gardeners know: much more fruit is produced on horizontally growing branches. If the branches of the apple tree grow at an acute angle or even almost vertically, the harvest may be quite small. What to do if the branches have already “grown wrong”?
So stay without harvest? It turns out that there is a small trick to help correct this shortcoming. If you bend the vertically growing branches down and fix them in this position with the help of a peg driven into the ground or even just a tied load, these branches will have to change the orientation of growth to a horizontal one. Thus, we will significantly increase the future harvest.
SECRET 2: MEDIUM TRIM - GREEN STREET
A lot of summer residents do not pay enough attention to pruning apple trees - perhaps due to lack of knowledge and fear of harming the trees. And in vain: with proper pruning yield increases. In apple trees, the “average pruning” is most successful, in which shoots are shortened by two thirds of the length and some of the branches are necessarily removed to reduce the crown size of the tree to 75% of the original. With this pruning, you can count on the maximum return from the apple tree.
SECRET 3: CLEVER RATE
This secret concerns mostly young apple trees that are going to produce a bountiful apple harvest this year. At first glance, this can please the gardener. But if you think strategically, then, firstly, a young apple tree may simply not overpower such a volume - and the apples will be small and tasteless, and secondly, having “sat down” this year, the tree will rest next year. What is the result? And this harvest will not make you happy, and there is no future to see ... What is the secret?
And he - in the artificial "taking away" of the central and "substandard" fruits. This is done so: as soon as the fruits are formed, you will need to carefully examine all the bunches of apples and remove one fruit from each one. You need to choose the most indifferent, irregularly shaped - as a rule, this fruit is the central one.
In addition, all the apples of unsuccessful form, the sick, with flaws, too, must be removed immediately, anyway they will lag behind in development and are unlikely to mature. The remaining fruits will be freer, nutrition will get more, as a result, and the harvest will please, and the tree will save power. In addition, with the timely removal of the affected ovary, the percentage of fruit and disease infestation and pests is significantly reduced. This is how useful this procedure is!
Thinning of ovaries with abundant flowering is carried out also in adult undersized apple trees. Experienced gardeners pay attention to 2 small, but very important nuances:
Before thinning the fruit, it is necessary to shake up the branch on which the work will be carried out - non-viable, but the ovaries that have not fallen down before will fall down on their own.
There is an important observation: a manual decrease in the number of fruits will only cause the enlargement of the rest, if each remaining ovary has no less than 35-40 leaves.
SECRET 4: THE RIGHT WATERING
Proper watering is an extremely important condition for a good harvest. There is a saying among gardeners: “It is not more often that watering is important, but that it is beneficial”. Many inexperienced gardeners-gardeners try to water the apple trees at least a little, but often. But just such a good watering brings little. During the summer, apple trees need only four, but very good watering, and at certain growing season:
The first watering needs to be done before bud break. The second watering is recommended to spend 2-3 weeks after flowering. The third watering is done 2-3 weeks before picking the fruit. The fourth irrigation is prewinter; it is carried out in late September - early October. This is the prevention of drying of wood in arid autumn and the freezing of the tree in the winter cold.
Apple trees can be watered in three ways. Surface (this is watering along the furrows between the rows and in the circular grooves of the diameter of the crown projection). Sprinkling (fan, impulsive and "pistol" sprinklers)
Drip irrigation (on the system of pipes, hoses of small diameter).
If you were able to organize drip irrigation in your garden, then you got a double benefit - the possibility of watering and feeding at the same time. Yes, and seedlings with drip irrigation survival is excellent. Recommended norms of single watering on one tree: for young trees of 1 year - 2-3 buckets; for 3-5 year old apples - 5-8 buckets; for 6-10-year-old apple trees - 12-15 buckets. If you take a popular note, an apple tree needs as many buckets of water as it is. So the choice is yours. But regardless of all signs, beliefs and our views, moisture should wet the soil to the depth of the active roots - this is 60-80 centimeters.
Properly organized watering can increase the yield of apple trees by 25-40%, and this, you see, a lot. Apple trees are not capricious, they can grow on almost all types of soil, they are well tolerated by our frosts and even without any care are able to please the hosts with fruits.
But if you count on a long-term friendship with a tree, stable good yields, large juicy fruits, you must also try to ensure good conditions and good care yourself. Moreover, the apple tree does not pretend to any special types of food - enough of all known organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Here are some proven recipes from summer residents. We hope that they will be useful to you:
Recipe 1: an organic cocktail - 2 buckets of manure and a bucket of green grass cut into a 200-liter barrel, filled with water and fermented for 2 weeks. The finished infusion is diluted in a ratio of 1:10. Norm of single watering: under young apple-trees (2-5 years) - on 2,5-3 buckets, under adults (7-10 years) - on 4-5 buckets.
Recipe 2: Ash top dressing - 1.5-2 kg of ash per 1 sq. Km. crown projection meter (applied to the soil).
Recipe 3: additive to watering - 1 tbsp. spoon azofoski 10 liters of water. Norm - 20-30 liters per tree at the age of 8-10 years.
Recipe 4: Wellness supplement - dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. Water once a month to disinfect and stimulate root growth.
SECRET 6: FOOD DELIVERY DIRECTLY TO THE ROOT
To fertilizers get to the root system quickly and without loss, you can use a little trick. Along the crown circumference, make several wells with a diameter of 10-12 cm to a depth of 55-60 cm - just before the active part of the roots (this is easy to make a drill).
The resulting wells fill with rubble, stones, broken bricks and coarse sand. These conductive wells are very convenient to use for irrigation and fertilization - everything is immediately delivered to the address. Experienced gardeners recommend laying 1 such a “canteen” for each square meter of the circle.
SECRET 7: USEFUL SUPPLIES FOR "SHEET"
Even beginning gardeners know about the benefits of foliar dressings. They are made by spraying the leaves and flowers with weak aqueous solutions of the necessary macro-and microelements. Such simple-looking procedures bring tremendous effects. Experiments have shown, for example, that if during the flowering of an apple tree a spraying of boron solution (1.0, 1.5 g of boric acid and 10 liters of water) is carried out by color, then the ovaries will be almost twice as large. Extra root dressings will help the apple tree to compensate for the lack of nitrogen and potassium, increase immunity.
We offer several proven recipes from experienced gardeners:
Recipe 1: nitrogen nutrition - 2 tbsp. Spoon urea diluted in 10 liters of water.
Recipe 2: iodide fertilizing - dilute 10 ml of iodine in 10 liters of water.
Recipe 3: fly ash dressing - 1 cup of ash pour 2 liters of hot water. After cooling, strain, add water to 10 liters.
In ashes, in addition to potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc, contains the necessary trace elements of apple. And all this through foliar feeding quickly and targeted delivered to the tree crown.
All foliar dressing is recommended during the period of fruit loading once every 2-3 weeks and stop one month before harvesting.
SECRET 8: PROTECTION AGAINST PESTS
Probably not a single summer resident in the world who at least once in their life pests have not spoiled the apple harvest. Lovers of parasitism on apple trees - even more than enough: they are apple sawflies and flowering beetles, ticks and brawlers, moths and aphids, bark beetles and scale insects, golden-haired beetles and pinworms. If you allow yourself to leave an apple tree without support, you will be left without a crop at all.
Pest control begins with preventive measures. As a rule, these are early spring spraying of trees and near-ground soil, which are designed to destroy the hibernating parasites, pest eggs, as well as pathogens.
Such spraying can be done:
Bordeaux mixture; With a solution of 700 g of urea, 50 g of copper sulphate per 10 liters of water. Preventive measures also include whitewashing shtambov, deep cultivation of spacing, cleaning dead bark, spring pruning and treatment of wounds. Pests can attack at any time, so the main thing for a gardener is to act ahead of the curve. If all preventive measures are carried out on time and correctly, then the pests will not be able to cause significant damage to your apple trees. If, however, the invasion of pests has not been prevented, it is necessary to fight taking into account the specifics of each pest.
SECRET 9: FORGING FRUIT WITH POWER
It happens and so - the apple tree is already adult, it is time to bring the harvest, but there is no fruit and no. In such cases, it is necessary to find the cause. Or at least carry out a series of measures that should make the apple tree remember its purpose. There is an interesting folk method that can cause a smile, but some gardeners still use it “quite seriously”. We share it with you: in late autumn, approach the “guilty” tree, go around it, reproachfully and angrily looking at it, and hit the trunk several times with an ax butt with the words: “If I do not see apples on you next summer, I will cut them down by the root! »Add a few strong cherished words from you too. They say it helps.
TIPS FROM EXPERIENCED GARDENERS
The reason for the poor harvest of apple trees may be the lack of a pollinator variety in the garden. For normal fruiting, it is required that 2-3 varieties of one breed and one ripening period grow on one plot.
To increase the yield of apple trees, it is necessary to attract insects to the garden plot, which will pollinate them. To do this, among the trees sow herbs with pronounced odors - dill, cumin and cucumber herb.
In the case of fruit trees with an increase in the density of planting can be miscalculated. Experienced gardeners argue that if the row spacing is less than 4 meters, the harvest of apple trees will noticeably decrease.
Watering the apple trees before harvesting will lead to cracking and falling off of the fruit.
If you add zinc sulfate to the soil before flowering (at the rate of 3 kg per 1 ha), the apple harvest will increase.