In this article you will find simple and clear answers to the following questions about growing currants:
When is it better to plant and transplant currants
All berry bushes, and currants, including, it is better to plant in the fall. The most favorable time in the middle lane, Siberia and in the north - from the end of August to the end of September, in the southern regions - in October. At this time, the weather is not hot, the roots are developing well, and the shrub has time to take root and grow strong until the cold.
Autumn planting currants.
Currant stops growing season at a temperature of 6-7 ° C, so you need to plant it in such a way that it can take root before frost. Rooting takes about 2 weeks. When planting, you need to cut off all the shoots, leaving no more than 3 buds on them, so that the crown does not develop to the detriment of the roots. Shrub necessarily planted obliquely, falling asleep 3 lower buds of the earth.
Rooted cuttings, also, on a permanent place is better to plant in the fall. In the future, they grow more powerful bushes than in spring planting.
Replant currants, too, better in the fall. The root system during an autumn transplant is restored faster than a transplant at any other time. Spring transfer of currants is unacceptable. The flow of flowers starts very early in it, and the bushes, at the same time trying to take root and start growing season, may die. And if they do not die, they will be ill for a long time, which will affect the quantity and quality of the harvest.
If there is a need to quickly transplant currants, then it should be done in the second half of summer, but not in the spring.
Where to plant currants
Currants prefer bright sunny places, but grows well in partial shade. In the south, it is even preferable to plant it in places with light shading. In a dense shade where illumination by the sun less than 7 hours a day black currant will not grow, red can grow, but will not bear fruit.
The shrub loves fertile land, but tolerates poor podzolic soils and peatlands quite well. Culture tolerates acidic soil. Soil pH 4.5-5.5 is suitable for black, the red one is more stable and can grow at a pH of 4.5 to 7. By the way, black currant does not grow well on chernozem, not because they are too fertile (this is good for culture ), but because the alkaline or even neutral soil reaction is unacceptable for it. Redcurrant is less demanding in this regard, therefore more common.
If water stagnates at the site or high level of groundwater, then for planting bushes choose the most elevated places and grow them on high ridges or embankments.
The crop is usually planted along the fence, along the boundaries of the plot, diverting not the most cultivated lands under it. And she feels good there.
When to trim the currants
The best time for pruning is autumn, when the temperature is not higher than 6-8 ° C. In the middle lane is the second half of October. Early autumn pruning is extremely undesirable, because in this case the culture forms a new young growth on the branches. The wood of young twigs does not have time to ripen and goes into the winter still green. Such an increase in winter is completely killed. If the trimming of the bushes is done very late, just before the cold, the wounds will not have time to drag on and the wood will frostbite.
And in fact, and in another case in the spring will have to re-pruning shrubs. Yes, and freezing of wood significantly weaken the bushes.
You can cut the currants in the spring, but the main thing here is not to miss the time. If the shrub has already begun vegetation, pruning is undesirable, although it is possible.
After flowering, weak and dried branches, which also need to be cut, become very visible. In general, if there is a need, the culture can be cut off within reasonable limits throughout the first half of the summer. But since mid-July, all pruning is stopped.
When and how to feed currants
Black currants, as a rule, are fed 2-3 times per season, red ones 1-2 times. When and how to feed currants depends largely on the soil on which it grows. In the first half of the summer culture consumes the greatest number of nutrients.
- It is best to feed the currants with organic fertilizers or alternately with organic matter and mineral water. When using mineral fertilizers alone, powdery mildew and aphids will always be on the bushes.
- Basic fertilizer applied in the fall. On poor soils, for bushes up to 3 years old is applied on 1 m2: rotted manure, humus or compost 6-8 kg, double superphosphate 100 g. Under the bushes over 3 years old, 8-10 kg of organic matter and 100 g of double superphosphate are used. On fertile soils, organic matter is introduced every 2-3 years.
- In the spring, when the leaves are blooming on poor soils, they make liquid fertilizing with organic matter (it is better to use humates or an infusion of grass). On chernozem this dressing is not carried out.
- In the period of intensive growth, the bushes are sprayed with any micronutrient fertilizers, and 15 g of potassium sulfate are applied to the soil. You can once again pour currant infusion of herbs, the nitrogen contained in it, the berries do not accumulate, because it will be used long before the ripening of the crop.
- Following fertilizing do after picking berries: make 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate. If the soil is very acidic, then every 2 years the bushes are watered with lime milk.
Those who grow crops for sale, use intensive cultivation technology. According to it, intensive fertilizing with nitrogen is used, but mineral fertilizers are applied in half with organic matter. Early spring make compost, herbal infusion or urea. During flowering shrub sprayed with any nitrogen fertilizer. Immediately after picking the berries, they are watered with humates or herbal infusion. Together with nitrogen fertilizers do not forget to make the rest of the elements.
All fertilizers applied around the perimeter of the crown, and not under the root.
How to pour currants
Watering is carried out depending on the weather. If summer is rainy, then it is not necessary to water the currants. If the weather is hot and there was no precipitation for more than 7 days, then watering is carried out 1-2 times a week. 3-4 buckets of water are poured under each bush.
With a dry autumn watering is carried out weekly. Water consumption rate of 20 liters per bush. As the temperature decreases, the interval between irrigation increases to 12-18 days.
2-3 weeks before the onset of frosts must do water recharge irrigation. Irrigation rate 40-50 liters per bush.
Why currant leaves dry
The most commonplace reason for drying leaves of currants is the lack of watering during long dry weather. Due to lack of water, leaves become brighter, drooping and drying. It is necessary to water the shrub, then it will immediately revive and new young leaves will appear instead of the dried ones.
Another reason for drying leaves on currants is damage to the glass. The caterpillar eats away the core of the shoots that stop growing and dry. The leaves begin to dry out from the top of the shoot, and as the caterpillars move along the core, they dry down lower and lower. When pruning a damaged branch in its center, the course along which the caterpillar advanced is visible.
To eliminate the cause, the sprouts are cut to healthy wood when there is no longer a turn in the center of the branch. If desired, in the cut branch, you can find the pest itself. Sometimes the escape has to be cut to the ground, because it is completely damaged. Glassware is very dangerous, it, with a large number, can destroy the shrub. Therefore, all damaged branches are cut and burned. For catching butterflies use bait with black currant jam.
Cercosporosis or brown spot is another cause of leaf drying. This is a fungal disease, manifested in the middle of summer. On the leaves appear brown spots with a light middle and brown rim, which then merge. When running, the leaves lose their color, dry out and fall off. To combat the disease at an early stage, they use biofungicides (Fitosporin, Gamair), with the full picture - copper preparations (XOM, Bordeaux mixture) or systemic fungicides (Skor).
Another disease, anthracnose, causes drying and abscission of leaves, especially on red and white currants. It is also a fungal disease, on the leaves it appears as light brown spots, which later merge, affecting most of the leaf plate. The leaves turn up, dry up and fall off. Red currants can shed all the leaves by the end of summer. When signs of disease appear, culture is sprayed with preparations containing copper.
Leaves dry out if they are damaged by any kind of rust. To combat the disease at the initial stage, plants are sprayed with Fitosporin. Copper preparations are used at the advanced stage, as well as for the prevention of damage to the shrub.
The leaves on the currants can dry due to the excess chlorine in the soil when the crop is fed with fertilizers containing this element. Accumulating in the leaves, it causes them to die. The edges of the leaf plate dry up, there is a clear border between the damaged and healthy tissue, the leaves turn light green. In very hot weather, necrosis may appear in the center of the leaf.
The damage is more pronounced on sandy soils. Nitrogen prevents the absorption of chlorine by the roots, so to prevent further damage, the shrub is fed with nitrogen (ammonium nitrate, urea). Top dressing is effective only when the fertilizer quickly reaches the sucking roots, therefore, after applying nitrogen fertilizers, abundant watering is carried out.
Why leaves currant turn yellow
1. If the leaves turn yellow on a young sapling that was planted in the spring, this indicates too early planting. Put currants when the temperature is not below 18 ° C. The leaves turned yellow as the awakened and actively growing roots fell into the cold ground and overcooled. To remedy the situation, the saplings are fed with a phosphoric extract and watered with Kornevin solution for the speedy formation of a complete root system. Shrub can be sprayed with Zircon, it will help him cope with a stressful situation.
2. Yellow leaves currant and because of the dryness of the soil. The culture is watered and it takes on a natural green color.
3. Excess moisture also causes yellowing of the shrub. If this happened after long heavy rains, then it is necessary to gnaw the soil around the plants so that the air calmly penetrates to the roots, and there is no oxygen starvation. You can spray bushes with Zircon.
4. If the area is constantly filled with water, and the leaves are constantly yellow, then the currant will not grow there and will die in 1-2 years. In this case, for growing crops, artificial mounds or high ridges are made.
5. Lack of nitrogen also causes yellowing of currant leaves. First of all, the old leaves turn yellow. Then the yellowness spreads very quickly to the whole shrub. To correct the situation make nitrogen fertilizer. The foliar spraying is most effective, but if it cannot be done (due to heavy rains, for example), the fertilizer is applied dry, embedded in the soil by 4-6 cm and well shedding the ground.
6. The leaves become yellow-green in color when the culture is infected with a green speckled virus. Black currant has pale green dots, which then turn into strokes scattered throughout the leaf. Pale red spots appear in red in the central part of the leaf, near the petiole. The disease is incurable and the sick bush must be uprooted.
Why leaves turn red
The cause of redness of currant leaves are pests: red-gall aphid and gall midge.
Red gall aphid often attacks red currant, gallite usually parasitizes black. Both insect species are sucking pests. They pierce the cloth with proboscis and suck the juice out of them, causing the leaves on the shrub to turn red and deform.
From the upper side, bumpy swellings form on them, and from the lower side there are depressions in which pests live and feed. Aphids damage the tops of the shoots, gall midges - the leaves in the lower part of the shrub. To combat them, insecticides of a wide spectrum of action are used (Actellic, Karbofos, Inta-Vir). If the pest is gall midge, then in addition, they pour the soil around the perimeter of the crown with the same preparations to prevent the mosquitoes from flying.
Folk remedies perfectly cope with aphids and gallitsa (soda solution, tincture of wormwood, mustard, tobacco dust, etc.). But always spend at least 3 treatments, spraying the shrub on the underside of the leaves. Damaged leaves will no longer recover and will remain red and swollen until the leaves fall.
The leaves on the shrub turn red, also with an anthracnose lesion, especially if the summer is warm but rainy. The appearing spots gradually merge, and the leaf becomes red-brown. Currant, especially red, even with a slight defeat drops all foliage. The disease greatly reduces the winter hardiness of the culture.
Anthracnose is easily prevented by routinely spraying the shrub with copper-based drugs.
Why currant showered
Overripe berries are always showered. For too long to keep them on the bushes should not be. Filmed slightly immature, they ripen during storage. There are varieties of currants, prone to the rapid shedding of ripe berries, so they are picked from these bushes as quickly as possible. Black currants are more prone to shedding ripe fruit than red and white.
But often the culture discards unripe and green fruit.
Firstly, currants fall off during droughts, especially in the southern regions. Currant is a forest dweller and it needs sufficient soil moisture for a full harvest. In dry weather, watering is carried out once a week, and when dry, 2-3 times a week.
Secondly, the shedding of berries is due to the wrong choice of a place to plant. In dense shade shrub shrubs ovaries. In the direct sun, especially in the south, the berries also crumble, because the crop is not capable of forming a crop in inappropriate conditions. Only one way out - transplant the bush in the right place.
Thirdly, too young or old bushes and branches are not capable of full-fruiting and shed most of the berries. Young bushes do not yet have enough strength for fruiting, therefore, although the fruits are tied, most of them are still showered with green, only single berries ripen. The same happens with old branches and bushes. To increase the yield, a young bush is patiently formed before it enters an intensive fruiting season. Old bushes rejuvenate, cutting out all unnecessary and diseased branches. If the shrub is too old, it is uprooted; there will be no berries on it anyway.
Fourthly, currant berries fall off when they are damaged by berry sawfly. Damaged berries turn black faster, and when you try to remove them, they fall off. To combat the pest use chemo-and biofungicides (Agravertin, Fitoverm).
Why currants dry
If the whole bush dries, the reason is in the root system. Roots can damage blindheads, honey bears or larvae of the May beetle. They can rot from too close groundwater, and verticillus can also occur - a practically incurable fungal disease.
Why not currant fruits
Currants should bear fruit annually, starting with 3-4 years. If the bushes do not give berries, then they are too old. If the age of the bush is more than 20 years for black and over 25 years for red currants, then it is uprooted. If he is not so old, then he is rejuvenated for 3 years, cutting out 1/3 of the old branches every year.