Pig disease should be known to every farmer who decides to breed these animals. At the first symptoms you should contact the veterinarian. Only a specialist can correctly diagnose and take the necessary measures. In some pathologies, animals are sent for slaughter, while others are prescribed treatment. Know their signs is necessary in order not to miss the moment when you can save the animal or all the livestock.
All diseases of domestic pigs are conditionally divided into several groups. In each group there are a number of pathologies that differ in the etiology, symptoms, and treatment methods. Here is a brief working classification.
Infectious diseases of pigs:
- caused by internal parasites;
Non swine swine diseases:
- congenital abnormalities;
- metabolic disorders;
- inflammatory diseases;
- purulent surgical pathologies;
Symptoms of pathologies can be very different from each other, but there are also general symptoms. The sick animal becomes sluggish, loses its appetite, lies for a long time, buried in the litter. With a long course of the disease, pigs lose weight. Infections are often accompanied by fever.
Below we consider the most common diseases from different groups. To learn more about the pathologies, it is worth considering a photo of sick animals and look in the veterinary directory.
Bacterial infection of pigs
Bacterial diseases of pigs are quite common. Causes: livestock content in dirty pigsty, introduction of pathogens from other farms. The treatment of such pathologies is quite successful, antibiotics of different groups are used. If you do not make a timely diagnosis, the animals may die. Infections have the ability to epizootic spread.
The disease is caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which is very resistant to environmental factors. In another way, this pathology is called erizepeloid. Infection is dangerous to humans, and may cause serious acute or chronic illness. In pigs, pathology variants can also be acute, subacute, and chronic.
Symptoms and treatment, as well as the causes of this pathology, are quite well studied. In pigs, the temperature rises, the appetite decreases. A characteristic sign - round or square spots on different parts of the body, which appear approximately a day after the onset of the disease, vesicular rash on the skin. For treatment use Bitsilin-5, penicillin. A vaccine against swine erysipelas has also been developed.
Dysentery is an intestinal infection that is caused by the spirochete. The source of infection may be sick and ill pigs. Transmitted through the nutritional way, with food and drink. The incubation period lasts from 2 to 30 days. The sick pig eats poorly, its temperature rises, very soon diarrhea occurs, blood fells are visible in its feces, its color is gray or black. With the appearance of diarrhea, the temperature drops sharply. Periodically diarrhea may be replaced by constipation.
The weaned piglets have a pronounced hemorrhagic component of colitis, in the feces a lot of mucus. In suckers, feces are watery, liquid, abundant, which quickly leads to dehydration. The death rate among the young is very high. Dysentery is treated with antibiotics, sulfa drugs. These drugs are sometimes given to pigs for prevention.
Salmonellosis is another intestinal infection that is quite common and dangerous to humans. Called salmonella, transmitted through food. The incubation period lasts from days to weeks. On the first day, the main manifestation of the disease is fever. From the second day, fetid diarrhea appears, feces of green color, resembling swamp mud. In severe and chronic cases, pneumonia joins, purulent rhinitis.
The disease is especially severe in newborn piglets: they lose weight quickly, refuse to eat. Diarrhea leads to significant fluid loss and death. Treatment consists of prescribing antibiotics, nitrofurans, sulfonamides. It is important to fill the water balance of the body of the pig. The basis of prevention is to remove the causes and transmission routes, feed the pigs with fresh, high-quality food and keep them clean.
One of the most dangerous infectious diseases of pigs. Called with a stick Pasteurella multicida. It is transmitted by alimentary and aerogenic pathways. Incubation can last from 1 day to 2 weeks. In the acute course of pigs affects the lungs, there are signs of pneumonia, purulent nasal discharge, cough. The disease in a lightning form can kill an animal in a couple of days, while the pig does not eat well, lies, its temperature rises sharply.
Sometimes pasteurellosis is chronic. In pigs, joints are affected, eczema appears on the skin. Often the disease is combined with other pathologies, including intestinal and viral infections. For treatment, pigs are given antibiotics ecmonovocillin and dibiomycin with prolonged action. To improve efficiency, they are combined with the tetracycline series, penicillins.
Diseases of pigs - how to recognize and how to treat? Diseases of swine Erysipelas Teshen's disease (enzootic encephalomyelitis of pigs). porcine enzootic encephalomyelitis. Non-contagious diseases of pigsSvinomatka Ill. How to treat a pig? Diseases of pigs. My Compound. LPH Mercury
Swine viral diseases
Among all infectious diseases, viral pathologies are the most dangerous. To date, very few drugs that would act on their causes. Many viral infections still remain incurable. After an illness, pigs often remain carriers for life. The only effective means of prevention is vaccination.
Classical and African swine fever
Classical (CSF) and African (ASF) plague are the 2 most dangerous infectious diseases of this species of animals. They are able to destroy all the livestock in a couple of days. Viruses are very resistant, so they can be transported over long distances. Plague is transmitted through food, items of care, transport. The carriers are often people, wild and stray animals, rodents.
The symptoms of both infectious diseases are similar. First, the pig temperature rises, she eats badly, constantly lies, she vomits. Then point hemorrhages and large purple spots appear on the body of the animal. Sometimes you can see purulent pustules on the skin. Death occurs after 1-7 days, depending on the form of the disease. Chronicle is rarely observed.
Classical plague causes the death of pigs in 80-100% of cases. There is a vaccine against it that protects the livestock. The treatment is not developed. African plague has a 100% mortality rate, there is no vaccine. The only way to protect - compliance with strict sanitary rules. In an outbreak, all pigs are destroyed and burned within a radius of 25 km. On the territory where the African plague was detected, strict quarantine is declared. It is possible to breed this species of animals only in a year.
Foot and mouth disease in pigs
The disease is caused by a virus that affects not only pigs, but also cattle, sheep, goats, can be dangerous to humans. Transmitted from sick and convalescent animals through air and food. In adult gilts, a vesicular rash appears on the skin around the udder, on the hooves, around the stigma, eyes, ears, as well as in the mouth and nose. Then it turns into erosion and sores, the skin becomes edematous. General symptoms are mild, after about 3-4 weeks the ulcer heals, the rash disappears.
Much heavier pathology passes in newborn piglets and weaners. They have gastroenteritis, changes in the heart, and neurological symptoms. If the pig is sick, his chance of dying is very high. Often pregnant sows are aborted during FMD. Treatment for this pathology is ineffective. The best way to protect is to be vaccinated on time.
Parvovirus infection is caused by the Parvovirus suis virus. In adult boars and gilts, it is asymptomatic. Animals secrete the pathogen with feces, urine, vaginal secretions and sperm for 2 weeks. This virus is dangerous for pigs that uterus give birth to dead piglets. If the infection occurs in the first month of pregnancy, the fruits simply dissolve and the female starts estrus again.
The diagnosis of parvovirus infection is made in cases where sows do not conceive, dead mummified fetuses are born. Sometimes piglets are born alive, but they have low body weight, severe anemia. Dying young in 2-3 days. For the prevention of all females and breeding boars, vaccinate every six months. Measures are being taken to prevent the introduction of infectious pathogens from other farms.
Circovirus infection manifests in young, weaned piglets. It is transferred from adult carrier pigs through urine, feces. Often the first symptoms appear immediately after birth. In piglets, tremor, difficulty in sucking, apathy and drowsiness are noticeable, their body becomes blue. Older piglets have anemia, cough, shortness of breath, yellowness, loss of body weight, white muscle dystrophy and signs of CNS damage.
More recently, a vaccine against this infection. In Western countries, 80-95% of individuals on industrial farms are already vaccinated. Treatment of circovirus disease of pigs has not yet been developed. In order for the little pig not to get sick, it is better for him to vaccinate.
Viral pathologies such as pseudo-rabies or Aujeszky's disease and Teshen's disease are much less common in the population. Psevdobeshenstvo caused by swine herpes virus, which affects the nervous system, provokes convulsions, paralysis and death of animals, especially young. In Teschen's disease, serous encephalomyelitis develops. Piglets develop paralysis of the front legs and the entire upper half of the body; Pathology in most cases ends in death.
Parasitic diseases of pigs
Parasitic or invasive diseases in pigs can cause protozoa, worms, as well as insects that live on the skin. These pathologies are contagious, but large epidemics with high mortality do not cause. Treatment, prevention and prognosis depend on each specific type of disease.
Pyroplasmosis in pigs
Pyroplasmosis is caused by intracellular parasites that are transmitted through tick bites. Outbreaks of the disease occur in spring and summer. A characteristic sign of invasion is hemolytic anemia, which is manifested by jaundice. The pig also develops a hemorrhagic skin rash, red urine, a pig is languid and does not eat anything. Often affects the nervous system.
In the blood, hemolysis and leukopenia are detected. Similar symptoms and descriptions have swine plague, leptospirosis, hemophiliac poliserosis, or Glesser's disease, because pathology is differentiated by these diseases. For the treatment using flavocridine, akaprin, azidine, berenil and other antiparasitic drugs.
The disease causes a parasite that lives inside the cells of the intestinal mucosa and bile ducts. Pigs are infected when they eat feed on paddocks. During reproduction in cells, the pathogen causes their inflammation and necrosis. The disease manifests itself in pigs with fever, loss of appetite, weakness, profuse diarrhea, and weight loss.
Very often, coccidiosis is complicated by other bacterial intestinal infections. For the treatment using drugs such as bakox, brovaseptol, tribrisen, trivasceptin. The same drugs are given for the purpose of prophylaxis in the first place to pregnant females.
Parasitic diseases, which are called cestodose, are caused by tapeworms. These worms are parasitic in the intestines of a pig. The larvae with blood flow into various organs and tissues. They can enter the muscles, the liver and even the brain. The main symptoms of the disease are weight loss, anemia, diarrhea, alternating constipation. With large capsules with larvae, symptoms of tumors of various organs may occur. Most often in pigs occur:
For the treatment using anthelmintic drugs that act on tapeworms. Prevention consists in overdoing hygienic rules when growing pigs.
Worm invasions that are caused by roundworms are called nematodoses. Adult worms from this group are parasitic in the intestines of a pig. The larvae enter through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, then through the walls of the intestine and stomach, enter the bloodstream and enter the lungs. When they mature, with mucus through the trachea again get into the mouth and swallowed. At the intestinal stage, animals may experience constipation, diarrhea, loss of appetite and weight. In the larvae stage - cough and other signs of bronchitis. Of nematodoses in pigs occur:
The treatment is carried out with antiparasitic agents to which roundworms are sensitive. Prevention is the same as for other parasitic diseases.
Most of the ectoparasites of pigs bother ticks and lice. Mites bloodsuckers fall on the skin of a pig from the external environment during walks, from bedding collected in the fields and in the forest. They stick temporary until they get drunk. The main danger of such parasites is the transfer of various infectious diseases.
There are mites that live inside the skin and feed on epithelial cells. The disease they cause is called scab or scabies. The sick pig itches, specific reddenings appear on its body, the pattern of which resembles the interweaving of numerous paths. There is a tick that hits the pig's ear. In the ear you can see a black or brown patina with small dots.
Lice do not often bother domestic pigs, as they prefer animals with thicker hair. If these parasites settled on light pig skin, they are quite noticeable. On the bristles you can see whitish eggs. The animal behaves restlessly, itches, and if it is massive, anemia may develop. The main way to fight ectoparasites is insecticides. You can prevent their occurrence by regular cleaning and periodic treatments for insects of the pigsty. It is also necessary to fight rodents, the main carriers of parasites.
Non-contagious pathologies most often occur due to metabolic disorders, improper feeding and maintenance. Some diseases in pigs are associated with congenital defects and injuries.
This pathology occurs when eating a pig poor-quality feed, can be the result of severe stress. The first sign is loss of appetite, decreased activity. In the future, there may be vomiting with bile after eating, bleeding, black feces. They treat the disease with the help of a diet, give antibacterial drugs, agents that reduce acidity, improve healing of the gastric mucosa.
Dyspepsia and gastroenteritis
Pathologies occur in suckling piglets if they are quickly weaned and transferred to an adult diet. Manifest vomiting, diarrhea, refusal to eat, the temperature in most cases remains normal. Sick piglets are transferred to easily digestible feed, liquid talkers and porridge. Then you can gradually introduce boiled potatoes, sugar beets, decoctions of flax and oatmeal. For the prevention of intestinal infections give nitrofurans and sulfonamides.
Pneumonia and bronchitis
Diseases of the lungs are most often associated with contents in cold or dusty rooms, in a draft. Pigs begin to cough, wheeze, shortness of breath appears. Often, respiratory symptoms associated with the upper respiratory tract - a runny nose, hoarseness. In most cases, the temperature rises, the animals weaken, eat poorly. For treatment use antibiotics or antibacterial agents, expectorant.
Anemia and vitamin deficiency
These non-infectious pathologies are associated with the improper diet of pigs, which does not provide them with all the necessary substances. Also, their cause can be congenital metabolic disorders, latent infections, helminth infections. With anemia, the skin of the piglets is pale, they are weak, poorly recover. For treatment use drugs, which include iron, revise the menu of pigs.
Each vitamin deficiency has its own specific clinical picture. Small piglets most often suffer from vitamin D deficiency. Because of this, they develop rickets. Bet of this disease the skeleton is developing incorrectly, muscle weakness appears, interruptions in the work of the heart. If a sow is deficient in vitamin E, she may have miscarriages or problems with fertilization. With a deficiency of vitamins of group B, violations of the nervous system and blood formation come to the fore. A lack of ascorbic acid leads to a drop in immunity, and bleeding from mucous membranes may appear.