An article from the column "Calendar of gardeners, gardeners, florists."
And in November in the garden can be beautiful.
November is the last month when you can still be engaged in preparing the garden for the winter. Although in October we did not sit with folded hands, but still there was plenty of work in the garden and garden in November. So what is left for us to do in the garden?
Preparing a garden for the winter
Your garden: work of the month.
Particular attention - planted in October trees.
In November, it is necessary to spend in the garden underwintering of trees.
What is podzimny watering and why is it needed? Sub-winter watering is necessary for all garden crops. It is necessary to spend it at the beginning of winter, when the earth has not yet frozen. Most summer residents hold it in the last days of irrigation water supply - in the middle of October. They have no other opportunity. For trees, later irrigation is more beneficial in the middle of November. The soil in the fall should be wetted by at least 60-80 cm. Water that has penetrated to a greater depth creates a significant amount of moisture in the soil. This increases the winter hardiness of fruit plantations, which at low temperatures suffer from drying, aided by high summer temperatures and lack of precipitation. Wet soil freezes to a lesser depth. Unstable snow cover or its absence during the frosty winter creates a serious danger of freezing of the root system. Water recharge irrigation reduces this danger. Fill ping circles several times. You can combine watering with fertilizer. Sub-winter watering is also a powerful means of controlling pests that hibernate in the soil. Properly conducted prewinter watering can reduce the number of vegetative irrigations. Watering after flowering, in the period of June shedding of the ovary, a month before the ripening of the fruit and mandatory watering after harvesting, remain mandatory.
After podzimnogo irrigation need to mulch the soil in the holes, cover it with a layer of compost, manure or leaves. 6-8 cm thick. This technique contributes to the preservation of moisture and the accumulation of nutrients.
Autumn mulching pristvolnyh circles.
As a result, the trees will take root well and will give in the summer a growth twice as much as unulorised saplings. Also warm the root system of trees on a dwarf rootstock and columnar.
Before freezing the soil of the tree you need to pile up the earth to a height of 25-30 cm. This will protect the roots from frost and from bulging after the land subsides. But in the early spring, immediately after thawing of the soil, the trees thrive.
Keep in mind: the care of trees in the year of planting often predetermines their development in subsequent years. With poor care, trees can not accumulate the necessary nutrients and are often damaged by frost.
Protect young non-bearing trees with fragile bark from rodents and frostbines. Tie trunks with kraft paper, light spunbond or old pantyhose without gaps, to the ground. Bottom sprinkle strapping soil at the very trunk. Then spud.
Do not forget to protect the trunks of trees from rodents.
Pruned trees planted in the fall in early spring, before bud break.
You can conduct sanitary pruning of old apples, pears, plums, currant bushes and gooseberries. Cut out the areas of bark affected by black cancer, cover with garden pitch.
Remove dry fruit and a drop from under the trees.
If you have not finished picking and destroying rotten and dry fruits in the trees, as well as carrion, hurry to do it, do not leave them in the winter.
Plum fruits can be not only rotten. In recent years, the number of plum thistles has increased, which harms plum trees no less than the moth. Tolstonozhka larvae hibernate inside the seeds of fallen fruits.
If you do not collect and destroy them (you can not put in the compost). The number of pests from year to year will increase.
Dig the soil in pristvolnyh circles.
If you did not dig them in October, then do it now. Before this, there is no need to clean them from weeds, if there are no seeds. Plant residues, siderats can rot in the soil, preserving the natural soil-forming process.
Improves soil structure, water and air permeability. On such soils, plants grow and develop better. Mineral fertilizers will not replace fresh organic.
Green mass of weeds or siderats can be buried when digging. The optimal rate of soil application of fresh organic materials is 0.5-1 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
Simultaneously with them, apply nitrogen fertilizers to the soil (5-10 g of urea per 1 sq. M). Soil microorganisms, decomposing fresh organic matter, use soil nitrogen, and this inhibits plants.
Do not try to exceed the dose of fresh organic matter, since this produces substances that inhibit plants. Put excess organics in compost.
In November, you can spend the last treatment of garden trees from pests
If lichens and moss appeared on the bark of the trunk or skeletal branches, then this tree needs special care. In the spring, trim the crown to improve its illumination and ventilation.
In early November, cover the trunks, branches, populated with parasitic plants, 5% solution of iron sulphate with a brush (500 g of vitriol per 10 liters of water).
Autumn work in the garden.
You can prepare a solution of hydrated lime with the addition of liquor (150 g of lime diluted in 10 liters of water, add 500 g of sifted wood ash and infuse the mixture for several days, stirring occasionally). The mixture is applied to the bark with a brush. In a few days the lichens will turn red and fall off.
In dry weather, spray the crowns of fruit trees with a 5 percent solution of urea (500 g per 10 liters of water), and the crowns of berry bushes with a 3 percent (300 g) solution of ferrous sulfate. This will protect the plants from being affected by anthracnose, lichen, and rust.
Finish cleaning shtambov and the bases of skeletal branches from the lagged bark. Clean the cleared places with a solution of iron sulfate - 500 g per 10 l of water. If there is a lot of taco (bark), coat the trunk with clay mixed with mullein, or blue vitriol (200 g per bucket of sour cream mixture).
Wounds from frost damage or for other reasons, heal. Large wounds are cleaned with a sharp knife to a healthy place, then smeared with garden pitch, bandaged with sacking. Shallow wounds are covered with garden pitch without stripping and strapping.
If shoots form near wounds, do not remove them until the wounds are covered. They promote wound healing.
If a trunk or tree branches form a hollow, you need to thoroughly clean it from rotten wood to a healthy place, coat with 5% iron sulphate (50 g per 1 l of water). Then hammer the hollow with a wooden sleeve, coat it with oil paint. If the hollow is large, drive it with rubble and fill it with a mixture of cement and sand (1: 3).
Treating trees in November.
Before the onset of frost, complete whitewashing of boles and bases of skeletal branches with lime (2.5 kg of lime, 1 kg of clay + 300 g of copper sulfate) or finished garden paint. The trunks of young trees (up to 4-5 years old) are chalked or tied with light non-woven material.
Do not forget to mulch the strawberries.
Frozen strawberry plants freeze when the temperature in the late autumn period drops to minus 10 degrees, and in early spring to minus 7 degrees, in the absence of snow cover.
In snowless winters, plants die at minus 15 degrees. Even a slight snow cover dramatically increases the frost resistance of strawberries.
Mulching strawberries in the fall.
For mulching, you can use humus, compost, peat, fallen leaves of trees. If the weather forecast promises to increase the frost, you need to sprinkle the plants completely to protect the hearts and apical buds.
See how apples are stored at the end of November.
Try to ventilate the storage of fruit in cold nights to reduce the temperature to 4-5 degrees and at the same time increase the humidity of the air.
This is the main work that must be done in November in the garden. Now let's see what awaits us in the garden.
What to do in the garden on the eve of winter
Your garden: work of the month.
The last month of autumn is unpredictable. He can become generous on warm days, and he can “award” snow and frost ahead of time. So urgent gardening needs to be completed as soon as possible.
On the warm days of November, those who did not have time in October may still plant garlic under the winter. Immediately after planting, grieve the bed with compost, humus, so that the soil in the root zone does not freeze longer, and the teeth have had time to give roots.
Do not postpone and podzimnye bow planting. This should be done first of all for those who buy onions in the fall. Sharp onion varieties will do.
Most often in the shops you can buy sevok varieties Stuttgarter Riesen. Select for planting the smallest onion - 1 cm in diameter and less. Onions, planted in the fall, in the snowless winters can damage the frost, so it is better to make sure and leave bigger seats for spring planting.
In addition, large sevok, being planted before the winter, gives a lot of shooting arrows. And this, of course, is undesirable.
Onions are planted when cold weather is established, the soil will cool, but will not freeze. If you plant it early, a feather will grow on the onion and it will overwinter badly, you will land late - the onions will not have time to take root, which will also negatively affect their safety.
It is very important that the bed allotted for planting onions is not flooded during the thaw. On a flat (without sides) plot we make 12-15 cm apart grooves 3-4 cm deep and place the bulbs 3-4 cm apart.
Such a thick landing in winter is justified. If the spring will not lunge, shoots can be thinned out - use extra plants on the greens. Bulbs fall asleep in advance prepared earth or compost, throw leaves.
Planting onions in late autumn.
Onions, planted in late autumn, in the spring start early in growth and fully use the external moisture to form a powerful root system, leaves. While the spring planting onions is planting roots in the garden, the winter onion is already strong, it has gained strength and the onion fly is not so terrible for it. In addition, he manages to generate a crop before the development of his main disease, peronospora.
We sow on a frost
On the cold land (in the daytime the temperature is slightly higher, and at night just below zero), we sow root crops and green crops in the prepared beds. For podzimnyh crops select varieties resistant to bolting:
- carrot - Nantes-4
- Moscow winter
- The incomparable
Beets are better to choose the following varieties:
All this is domestic varieties. Foreign hybrids, such as carrots, are thermophilic than ours, and after cold treatment, seeds can produce flowering plants.
For podzimnyh crops of dill, spinach, lettuce varieties do not matter. Fans of fragrant herbs under the winter can sow sage, monard.
If your parsnip, sown in the spring, does not grow well, try throwing its seeds into the soil that begins to freeze. After cold treatment, parsnip comes up more readily.
Some gardeners sow radishes, Peking cabbage for the winter. For the sake of experiment, you can try. However, only stable cold weather can guarantee friendly shoots in the beds of podzimnii seeding.
If thaws occur in winter, the seeds may germinate, and after the return of frost die. So, to risk or not is voluntary.
Winter came to the garden.
Before sowing, the bottom of the sowing grooves is slightly compacted and slightly watered so that all the seeds are at the same depth, they are in good contact with the soil.
Seeds sow thicker and deeper than in spring sowing. Seeds in the grooves are filled with soil mixture prepared beforehand and hidden in a non-freezing room. The bed after sowing mulch compost. If possible, sprinkle with fallen leaves.
We do not occupy much space with podzimnim crops, we sow only for early production, since podzimny vegetables do not store for a long time.
Read the same: "How to grow the earliest carrots"
On the later vacated beds you can sow mustard on the siderats. Early in the spring it will rise without our participation, and we will spend the time saved on other urgent work.
In November we will take care of perennial vegetable crops. Let us cut the frost-killed leaves and stems in the beds of perennial onions, asparagus, rhubarb, sorrel, lemon balm, sprinkle them with wood ash or potassium sulfate and burn them. Thyme is not cut in the fall.
In case of a snowless winter, all these plants should preferably be covered with a 4-5 cm layer of compost or humus. Powder and remaining to winter in the garden of parsley, celery, parsnip, leek. This will increase the chances of a safe wintering and early spring greenery.
If vegetables in the garden caught frost
The October frosts forced summer residents to hurry with the harvest of late vegetables: daikon, carrots, leeks, cabbage were cut in emergency mode. And what about those who did not have time? Daikon roots, carrots could be preserved under dense foliage, especially since the October sun still warmed the soil during the day and it thawed.
Cabbage could save leaves cover. When digging carrots, daikon, be careful: if they have soft tips, it is better to cut them to an elastic place, dry the cuts and use the roots in the near future. When cutting cabbage, pay attention to the cover leaves. If they regained turgor, white headed cabbages, Brussels coaches should be stored.
If not, then it is better to chop white cabbage and ferment, and to cut and freeze the Brussels roost. If late vegetables have safely withstood frosts under their own foliage or temporary shelter, we define them for storage.
We have not managed to form a full-fledged harvest of the Brussels sprouts plant and dig it out to prikopat on growing in the basement. The cabbages of late varieties harvested with the root are dried for several days in a draft. Later the heads of cabbages are lowered into basements and hung from the ceiling or laid out on shelves.
Daikon dry, pruned leaves, leaving hemp about two centimeters long, and lower into the basement. There the roots will be stored either in plastic bags or in a box covered with sand.
In leeks, remove damaged and heavily polluted leaves, shorten the rest by two thirds, and cut the roots in half. Leek can be stored in the basement: set the plants vertically in a box and cover with sand.
Those who do not have a basement, can store leeks on the loggia, hiding it, if the temperature drops below minus marks.
In November, you need to have time to stock up on land for seedlings.
While the ground in the garden is not frozen, take care of the soil mixture for seedlings. It is possible to pour humus or compost, sheet or sod soil into separate bags, and if they are not there, then we will collect soil in the garden. It is better not to take land from the beds. You can immediately sand and lay down.
All components of the future seedling mixture will be left at the cottage, in the shed or taken to the garage so that they will freeze well during the winter. Then in spring we will not need to steam the soil mixture: strong frosts will disinfect it as well as steam.
Having components of the seedling mixture, in the spring it is easy to prepare a land for the seedlings, taking into account the tastes of tomatoes and eggplants, cabbage and cucumbers.
Land for seedlings can be collected in the garden.
Do not forget to pour wood ash into a plastic bag and tie it so that it does not become damp and lose its useful properties. It will also be gradually added to the soil mixture. Ash is also useful for dusting the soil surface in seedling tanks.
What other work can be done in the last month of autumn
Until the soil is frozen, you can continue to dig up the beds, enriching them with organic matter (manure, droppings, humus, compost), phosphate and potash fertilizers. Light soil is better not to dig, and pro-loosen. Everything else will do rain, snow, cold.
It is desirable to open stationary greenhouses for the winter so that the soil in them is also saturated with atmospheric precipitation, healthier.
All plant residues are laid in a compost pile, overlaid with ready-made compost or earth. From above, we throw the earth thicker - 20-30 centimeters, so that the heap does not freeze over and the processes of organic “processing” continue in it as long as possible.
Put the imported manure tightly so that it does not heat up much and does not lose nitrogen. We throw a bunch of sawdust or fallen leaves.
Leaving your garden until spring, we will once again check whether we have done everything:
Take home a piece of summer
Going to leave the garden until spring, do not forget to dig
- chard and sorrel roots
- several parsley roots
- grab bulbs of tiered onions
Immediately fill the soil mixture capacity in which all this wealth will be driven out on the windowsill. It is better not to be stingy and buy pots of the same shape and color so that the garden on the windowsill would look aesthetically pleasing.
Winter came, now our garden on the windowsill.
At the bottom of each pot we will arrange a drainage (a layer of broken brick or ceramic shards, a layer of sand), then we fill in the soil mixture (peat, humus, sod or garden soil). There are no components for such a mixture; it can be planted in purchased peat, in clean garden or garden soil.
Roots and bulbs have enough of their own reserves to drive out the greens. A lot of greens will give large root crops: parsley with a diameter of 2, celery - 5 cm and more. Small roots quickly depleted.
Root crops shortened so that they fit in a pot. Parsley is planted obliquely (at an angle of 45 degrees), celery - straight.
Bulbs of the family, bulbs of a multi-tiered onion are planted close to each other. Presowing treatment they do not need, because they are easily out of a state of rest.
But the heads of the usual onion must first be awakened. To do this, the bulbs are soaked in warm water (30-35 degrees). Wood ash can be added to the water (2 teaspoons per liter). The bulbs can simply be planted in water by setting it on a small jar so that even the bottom does not touch the water.
The roots, feeling the moisture, will reach it themselves. With this method, the bulbs that have consumed their nutrients to distill the pen are easy to replace. Yes, and annoying flies are not divorced.
Vygonochnye plants we water and take out for a week in a dark cool place - for rooting. Having noticed hints on the first leaflets at the growth point, we find a bright but not hot place for the distillation plants.
At temperatures above 18 degrees the greens will grow quickly, but the lack of light (and in November, the days are short and cloudy) will affect the quality: parsley leaves, onions will be loose.
Florist calendar. Works in November
Your flower garden: work month.
In the last month of autumn there is enough work for everyone. Including lovers of flowers.
About what work should be done florist, read on the next page.
Other articles in this series: