The preparation of the substrate is the most costly and demanding of great physical efforts in the stages of champignon cultivation. On how correctly you make a substrate for champignons, their productivity will depend largely on the fact that it is the substrate that receives the main amount of nutrients.
All work begins with the preparation of the substrate, its main component is compost. If you grow oyster mushrooms, then straw, sunflower husk, buckwheat, or other crops will go for this, and the preparation of the substrate itself is a simpler task.
For the preparation of high-quality compost will need approximately 20-25% straw of wheat or rye, and 75-80% of horse manure.
If you have problems with horse manure, then mushroom cultivation can be carried out on cow or bird manure, but be prepared for the fact that the crop in this case will not be so high.
It is most convenient to prepare the substrate on the street, but it is necessary that there should be a shed that will protect it from drying out in the sun or excessive moisture from rain. It is possible to carry out all the work in the room, but note that during the fermentation of the compost a lot of ammonia, carbon dioxide and moisture are released, therefore such a room should have good ventilation.
In order to prepare the substrate, we need not only straw and manure, but also other ingredients. For 100 kg of straw, you will need:
- 2 kg of urea and superphosphate,
- 8 kg of gypsum and 5 kg of chalk are also added,
- the rest is manure.
In total, you will get about 300 kg, which is enough so that you can lay mycelium at 3 square meters. m
If bird droppings are used, then 100 kg of litter and straw, 8 kg of gypsum and 7 kg of chalk are taken, besides, about 250 liters of water should be added.
The cooking process includes the following steps:
If you did everything correctly, the heating of the substrate will begin, as it is fermented, and the temperature inside the heap reaches 60-70 ° C, this happens on day 3.
It is best of all that the stack height is about 1-1.5 m, the process of preparing the substrate will be more efficient, it will take about 20-22 days, it depends on external factors and the correctness of the proportions of the components.
Sowing the substrate with mycelium
The technology of champignon cultivation both in industrial volumes and at home involves using mycelium, also called champignon seeds, as a seed material, which is grown in the laboratory. Similarly, use oyster mushroom mycelium.
Mushroom cultivation of champignons can be carried out from both grain and compost mycelium.
- If you decide to use cereal mycelium, then note that it is released in bags, it can be stored in such packaging for up to six months, while it needs conditions under which the temperature will be from 0 to 4 ° C. If you decide to grow mushrooms champignons yourself, then you need to know that on 1 square. m consumes about 100 kg of the finished substrate and about 0.35-0.4 kg of grain mycelium.
- If we talk about compost mycelium, then it is stored in a glass jar, if the temperature conditions are about 0 ° C, then the shelf life is also half a year, and at a temperature of 18-10 ° C only 15-20 days. Although the compost mycelium is less affected by external conditions, but it is less fruitful and on the same area, it requires 500-550 g.
If for the first time you are faced with the question of how to grow champignon mushrooms, then you need to know that the substrate must be pasteurized before sowing the mycelium. If it is cooked correctly, then when you press it, it will spring a little. After preparing the substrate, before growing the mushrooms and sowing the mycelium, it should be cooled to 25 ° C, if the temperature is 30 ° and above, the mycelium will die. The substrates are filled into the boxes, the layer thickness of which should be 25-30 cm.
Inogulation is carried out as follows: a small handful of compost mycelium is taken, a 4-5 cm cavity is made in the compost, the mycelium is placed there and sprinkled with the substrate. The holes are made in a checkerboard pattern so that between them is 20-25 cm. If you sow with grain mycelium, it is simply rubbed in your hands, and then evenly distributed over the entire surface, and then covered with a layer of compost 4-5 cm thick .
At this time, indoors, it is necessary to maintain a humidity of about 80-95%, and in order that the substrate does not dry out, it is recommended to cover it with paper or burlap, not to cover it with polyethylene, since the substrate and mycelium cannot breathe. For the normal development of fungi, the substrate must be at a temperature in the range of 20-27 ° C, if these conditions are not met, then the room should be either heated or ventilated depending on the temperature.
After 8-12 days, the mycelium grows well, and the top is covered with a coating of 3-4 cm in thickness. To do this, take 9 parts of peat and 1 part of chalk, per 1 square meter. m will need up to 40-45 kg of such soil.
3-4 days after you cover everything with such a soil, the temperature in the room is reduced to 12-17 ° C in order to provoke the onset of the growth of fungi. It is necessary to ventilate the room well, but it should not be done drafts.
Features of mushroom cultivation (video)
Many people grow champignons in a greenhouse at home or in the country; the whole process takes 3-4 months. Harvesting begins when the film between the hat and the leg is taut, but not yet burst.
Those mushrooms that have a flabby look and have ripened, it is better not to eat. When picking mushrooms, they should not be torn, but twisted, and the hole that was formed after that is covered with earth and watered a little.
Now you know how and where champignons grow, on one substrate and at one sowing the fruiting, depending on the quality of the substrate and the quality of the mycelium used, can last 8-14 weeks. During this time, it is possible to collect up to 7 waves of mushrooms, from 1Q. m get 5-10 kg of champignons, but with each new wave of their harvest will decrease.
More than half of the entire crop is harvested during the first 2-3 waves, between the waves it takes from 4 days to a week. You can eat grown mushrooms, treat your relatives, and if there is enough space, you can grow them for sale, while growing mushrooms can become your business, which will bring good money.
How to grow mushrooms (video)
Gallery: champignon growing (15 photos)