The question of how to pinch tomatoes, takes all novice gardeners. From the correct pruning depends on the yield of bushes, the size of the fruit, their taste. Formed bushes develop better without increasing the excessive green mass, and directing all the forces on the setting and development of tomatoes.
Masking a tomato bush
Masking: why it is needed
To understand why pasynkovat tomatoes, you need to consider the principle of plant development. The growing up tomato seedling has one, rather strong stalk with developed leaves. The plant maintains such an appearance until the first flower brush is formed. Then a strong lateral process begins to form beneath it, another one appears after the next brush. Tomato spends a lot of energy on the development of these processes (stepchildren), often at the expense of flowering and formation of ovaries.
The task of the gardener is to redirect the energy of the plant, stimulating abundant flowering and early fruit set. To do this, form tomato bushes, carefully cutting off the side processes. This is exactly how classic pinching happens: a tomato, having lost the opportunity to increase its green mass, is quickly gaining color. In the process of growth stepchildren will have to be removed repeatedly, they can occur during the entire life cycle of the plant. It is very important to conduct pasynkovanie in time, the tomato should not be too weak or excessively stretched.
Tomato bushes can be determinant or indeterminate. Feature of the first - compactness and weak branching. The undersized bushes of the superdeterminant type do not need to remove side shoots. The situation with sprawling and tall indeterminate tomatoes is completely different. For them it is necessary pasynkovanie, a tomato is formed in 1 or 2 stems, the exact choice depends on the variety.
Yield increase by coining
The decision whether to grape tomatoes is made individually. Some gardeners remove only the upper processes, rightly believing that the lower ones, strong and strong, also form the ovary and increase the yield. This is true for small-fruited varieties with thin skin, for which overgrowth is undesirable. At the same time, pinch tomatoes with especially large fruits are necessary, only so can the tomatoes gain the desired weight.
Additional information can be given by the description of the variety, it is usually printed on sachets of seeds. Here it can be stated how to properly pinch the tomatoes, how many stems should be left for the best development. It should be borne in mind that indeterminate tomatoes in the greenhouse branch more strongly. When transplanting into open ground, they require minimal pasynkovanie, the tomato becomes more compact and not so sprawling.
The formation of the bush: the advantages and disadvantages
Among the undoubted advantages:
- plant growth and development is accelerating;
- harvest can be obtained faster;
- plants take up less space;
- bushes harder to damage when harvesting or caring for plants;
- after staving tomatoes are larger, the number of ovaries on each brush increases.
The disadvantages include the following:
- improper storing of tomatoes in the open field can cause disease or provoke premature wilting;
- inexperienced gardeners often remove too many shoots, weakening the plants.
Masking of tomatoes and the formation of the bush (video)
Formation in one stem
The most common option suitable for indeterminantnyh varieties - pruning all lateral shoots after the first flower brush. Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse requires just such a formation. It contributes to better insolation of plants, planting does not thicken.
The trimming scheme is simple. After the formation of the first flower brush, you need to detect a process directly below it. The brush itself is tied over a 10 or 11 leaf. Subsequent brushes are formed every 3 sheets. The task of the gardener is to consistently remove all unnecessary processes immediately after the appearance.
To work you need a sharp knife, disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate. Another option - neat breaking out. It is carried out from the bottom up, so as not to injure the stem, tearing off the top layer of the skin. It is not necessary to sprinkle the wounds, with a properly performed operation, they tighten themselves.
It is best to store the tomatoes in the open field in the morning. Preferred dry and warm weather. With increased humidity, the wounds on the stem become worse, and rot and growth are possible.
Formation in two stalks
Sometimes on semi-determinant bushes it is difficult to distinguish the powerful developed stepson from the main stem. In this case, it is worth keeping the plant in two stems. For the development of left the largest appendix under the first brush. Sometimes gardeners do not touch the next stepson, allowing 3 stalks to grow. For better air exchange and insolation, it is recommended to tear off the lower leaves.
Variants of the formation of tomato bushes
There is another option for the bush. The first shoot is pinched, and the next is brought to the full stem. Lower leaves break out. With such a formation, it is possible to achieve especially large fruits, which are usually tied on the lower branches.
Little secrets from experienced gardeners
The tasting of tall tomatoes is important to carry out on time. When pruning lateral shoots, it is imperative to pinch the growing point so that the bushes do not stretch beyond the norm. It is necessary to graze tomatoes in open ground moderately, undersized compact varieties usually do not form frequent side shoots. Pruning is recommended once a week. During this time, have time to grow new stepchildren who need to be removed. You can not let them stretch. The smaller and weaker the process, the easier it will carry the pruning of the mother plant.
After processing, the bushes need to feed the full mineral fertilizer or diluted organic matter.
How to form tomatoes in the greenhouse (video)
Now you know what stuttering is and how it affects the development of tomatoes. Experienced gardeners recommend the use of tips in practice, but without excessive fanaticism. It is necessary to highlight several experimental bushes that can be cut using different schemes. This will help you find your own tomato cultivation formula, which guarantees excellent yields.