Guest from the tropics
Hot pepper - a great seasoning, medicine (rubbing, patches, tinctures, ointments) and a component of alcoholic beverages.
It contains 7-12% dry matter, including 5% sugar, 1.5% protein, 1% fat, vitamins A, B, C, P, calcium, potassium, thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid. Caloric content of the plant is 40 kcal per 100 g of product.
The benefits of capsaicin to protect the body against free radicals, strengthen the immune system, and stimulate the motility and secretion of the gastrointestinal tract are well known. Scientists at the University of Nottingham (England) found that the effect of this burning substance on mitochondria, which are responsible for cellular energy, causes a massive death of cancer cells.
Fruits of hot red pepper contain 20 times more pungent capsaicin than sweet pods. Although black pepper is the most consumed in the world, the most burning spices are made from the fruits of Capsicum frutenscen, better known to all as chili. Small bright red fruits in their natural surroundings adorn a tall perennial shrub, but in Europe and Russia chili is grown as an annual and, as a rule, in protected ground.
Ground hot pepper is among the necessary spices. Almost every recipe for meat dishes contains it. Pepper is added to sauces, soups, salads, smoked meats, seafood, it is part of the ketchup and spicy curry mixture. The pods of hot peppers, as well as peas, are an indispensable component of pickles and pickles.
Guest from the tropics is very picky about heat. At + 13 ° C the fetus stops growing, at + 30 ° C, the lack of moisture in the soil and the air drops the ovary. The plant does not tolerate low temperatures at all and perishes.
Depending on the climate of the region, the cultivation of bitter pepper is possible in open ground or in a greenhouse. At the same time there are no special differences from tomatoes and sweet peppers in how to grow.
How to plant seeds
The fastest method of obtaining early harvest - planting 50-55-day seedlings with open roots and 65-70-day in pots. In order to grow the hot pepper in optimal time, it is sown in late February - early March, but in the southern regions it is recommended to start sowing a month earlier.
If seeds are purchased for planting that have not been treated with fungicides, then this should be done by purchasing special products in combination with growth stimulants. You can put them in a weak (pink) solution of potassium permanganate, then rinse and dry. For stimulation, it will not be out of place to keep seeds closer to heat for a month before planting. Some gardeners warm up the seeds in a thermos and germinate them on a multi-layered wet gauze.
It is recommended to plant seeds in boxes, to the bottom of which the drainage from fine expanded clay, broken brick, foam plastic is laid. Then the prepared mixture is poured into the box, which includes:
- 1 part of peat and humus (in equal quantities);
- 2 parts of turf or vegetable land;
- some sand;
- mineral fertilizers per 1 m² of soil:
- 0.6-0.8 kg of ammonium nitrate;
- 1-1.5 kg of superphosphate;
- 0.8 kg of potassium chloride.
The earth should be moistened, compacted and marked rows at a distance of 5-6 cm from each other with a depth of 0.5 cm. Seeds are sprinkled with earth and watered with warm water. They germinate better in warm soil, so it is important to ensure that during the daytime the temperature of the subsoil layer is + 25 ° C (+ 15 ... + 16 ° C - at night). After germination, the daily temperature of young plants can be lowered to + 18 ° C.
To preserve moisture, the boxes are covered with a dark or transparent film, putting on top of paper, which reduces the intensity of light. Watering is best done with a spray in the morning and evening.
To seedlings healthy
Usually seedlings appear after 8-10 days or a little later. The seedlings of bitter pepper, the cultivation of which does not differ from the care of sweet, are freed from the covering film from the beginning of the sprouting. Water it less often, but more often it ventilates the room in which it is contained.
With the appearance of 3-4 true leaves, the seedlings dive - transplant into other containers or into the ground of the greenhouse. So bitter pepper gets an increased area and gets used to transplants. In contrast to tomatoes, pepper picking is not necessary if the seedlings in the boxes do not interfere with each other or are immediately planted separately.
Step by step picks like this:
Further, seedlings are watered less frequently, but plentifully. Useful fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers every 10-12 days. If necessary, the photophilous plant is highlighted.
Peeking pepper seedlings at home (video)
The most suitable time for planting pepper in open ground in the southern regions is the second half of May. In other regions, it is more comfortable for it in a greenhouse, where it is kept warm and the climatic conditions do not change so drastically. By the time of landing on a permanent place, the plants must be stocky, with a strong stem, well-developed leaves and roots.
Planting an adult plant
Planting density of finished seedlings - 6-8 pieces per m². The distance between rows is 70 cm, in a row 15-20 cm. Regular and abundant watering is very important for mature plants. Soil compaction threatens them with fusarium wilt. Therefore, after each watering the land should be loosened to a depth of 10-12 cm. Mulching will help to leave it loose and breathable.
Top dressing is made several times during the summer. The first - in 12-15 days, when the plants take root. Usually it is a mixture of organic with inorganic. Further, the intervals between dressings increase to 20 days. Fertilizers can be applied by watering the furrows or make several foliar dressings.
In addition to bitter pepper, many are interested in peppercorns. The fact is that the plant is a tree tropical liana. How does spice grow in our climate?
Some lovers buy a bag of black pepper and grow it at home. Even in a pot, peppercorns grow up to 2 m, if you create a temperature regime, good soil, humidity, give support and a lot of light without direct sunlight.
Red hot pepper growing house (video)
Gallery: hot pepper (15 photos)