Chestnut tree description
Chestnut tree - description:
- sprawling domed crown;
- right barrel cylindrical;
- root system rod;
- leaves opposite with 5-7 ovate leaves 15-30 cm long;
- inflorescence whisk with white speckled flowers of 20-40 pieces;
- fruit box with 1 nut inside.
It blooms in May, leaves first open, then flowers appear. After the end of the flowering period, and it lasts 2 weeks on each hand, 1-3 fruits are formed. Boxes first green, covered with spikes. By autumn, they become brown in color, crack and show a nut. Small smooth chestnuts of brown color in length reach 3-4 cm. They are the main means of reproduction of plants in natural conditions of willows of the nursery. The harvest ripens in August-September.
During the flowering period, the plant is a good honey plant.
Homeland plants - Greece. In the wild form it can be found in Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia, in the foothills of the Himalayas, climbing to a height of 1000 m above sea level. It can grow in the steppe - due to the strong root it is not afraid of the gusting steppe wind. Where is chestnut growing yet? In nature, it is adjacent to ash, beech, alder and other hardwood trees. Cultivated in most CIS countries. In the suburbs of young trees often freeze slightly, as in St. Petersburg. Especially a lot of chestnuts in Kiev.
How to sprout a nut
The larger the fruit, the higher the probability of obtaining a strong seedling
Stratification can be natural and artificial. The fruit of the chestnut has a thick skin that reliably protects the sprout inside. That is why he is not afraid of cold and bad weather. But it is precisely the lowered air temperatures that awaken the sprout for a long time. Under natural conditions, stratification occurs during the winter months on the ground, under a layer of fallen foliage.
To carry out the stratification in artificial conditions you need:
- select the largest specimens of walnut-like fruits;
- put a layer of river sand into a wooden box;
- put the fruit at a distance of 15 cm from each other;
- top with another layer of sand not less than 15 cm;
- put in a cellar or basement until spring.
If you need a lot of planting material, take a tall box and stack several layers of seeds alternating with layers of sand.
How to germinate chestnut in artificial conditions? In March-April, depending on the weather conditions, a box with seeds is taken from the basement and placed in a warm room, having previously moistened the soil. In the warm box should be about 2-3 weeks. After that, the nuts are removed from the sand and soaked in warm water for 4-6 days. During this time, the fruit swells and sprouts will be easier to appear outside. The water in the tank is changed every day.
If the weather is cold outside and the spring is long, chestnuts can be planted in small containers with fertile soil to a depth of 5-7 cm and water well.
For successful germination, the air temperature should not fall below 7 ° C.
Horse chestnuts breed well in natural conditions. Without extra effort, you can get a strong planting material, if you look for overwintered and hatching nuts right under the adult tree. They are transferred to the desired area and planted in a temporary or permanent place.
Features of growing
Sprouted nuts are planted in May, when the threat of return frost is over. The fruit is buried by 5-7 cm, sprinkled with soil and moistened, followed by loosening. Be sure to put a label next. In dry weather, sandy soils require regular watering of young seedlings throughout the dry season.
Over the summer, the sapling grows to 50-60 cm. The horse chestnut in the photo above is in the first season after planting. In growing the tree is unpretentious, but in the first few years in harsh winters you need shelter with non-woven material. A pristvolny circle is sprinkled with peat or fallen leaves, and the crown is wrapped with a material such as a spunbond, but only with the probability of establishing strong frosts, this is not necessary in advance.
From this procedure, the crown is also becoming thicker and more decorative. In hot regions, where there is a high probability of prolonged heat with air temperatures of 30 ° C, seedlings are planted in partial shade to avoid leaf burning. Burnt leaves turn brown and dry, significantly reducing the decorativeness of the plant.
Horse chestnut is good because it is almost not damaged by insects and diseases. For several years it grows into a full-fledged tree, the crown of which gives the desired shadow in the summer heat. When grown far from the city, fruits, buds and bark can be used for medicinal purposes.
Use of horse chestnut in landscape design
The plant belongs to the long-lived, in natural conditions, lives up to 300 years, so it is so often used in gardening. Today there are many varieties of ordinary horse chestnut. Especially decorative look specimens with a hanging form of the crown. There are subspecies in the form of a bush, reaching only 2 meters in height, there are dwarf trees and standard forms. They all fit perfectly into landscapes of different types, from rustic gardens to elegant English and French.