How to build a greenhouse of wood?
- Manufacturing materials
- How to build in the country?
- Tips and tricks
- Successful examples and options
Nowadays, greenhouses are found on many summer cottages. Such designs are not only bought, but also made by hand. Different materials are used for this. Today we will analyze in stages how to properly construct a greenhouse made of wood.
In many regions of Russia, vegetables and fruits are best grown in well-equipped greenhouses. For example, Bulgarian pepper, tomatoes and cucumbers bear fruit well, if you provide them with a suitable microclimate. You can create it with the help of high-quality greenhouses.
Such designs are made from a variety of materials. For example, in many areas today you can meet products with frames made of aluminum or stainless steel. A good alternative to these options are terribly popular models of wood. They can not only be purchased at specialized outlets, but also made by yourself. Carrying out such work is considered quite simple. It is only important to use quality materials and follow the instructions unswervingly.
Many homeowners choose such structures because they have many positive characteristics.
Let's get acquainted with their list.
- The main advantage of wooden structures is that they are safe from an environmental point of view. They will not adversely affect human health or plantings that are inside the greenhouse. Even if there is a strong heat in the yard, the tree will not release hazardous substances into the environment, because they simply are not in its composition.
- In order to construct a greenhouse out of wood, the owner will not have to purchase special tools, which often have an unreasonably high cost. Only a standard carpentry set consisting of a saw, nails and a hammer is enough.
- Greenhouse wood frames are distinguished by their low weight. However, this does not affect their strength and durability. Damage to such a structure would be problematic.
- Do not be afraid of damage to a certain wooden part, because it can be replaced with a new one. This will not take a lot of time and effort, which indicates the practicality of such greenhouses.
- A tree suitable for the construction of a greenhouse is a publicly available material that has a democratic value. This means that not much money will be spent on the construction of the greenhouse from the owners.
- If you correctly approach the choice of natural material for the construction of a greenhouse, then its life may exceed 7 years.
- To build a greenhouse of wood is not difficult. Even an inexperienced master, who has no special knowledge and education, can handle such work.
- Such a structure can decorate a summer cottage, especially if supplemented with interesting decorative elements.
- A tree is a malleable material, and it will not take a lot of free time to work with it.
As you can see, such constructions have enough advantages that make them so popular and relevant. However, we must not forget that they have some drawbacks. If you decide to put on your site a wooden greenhouse, then you definitely need to know about them.
- The main disadvantage of such facilities is that they require regular maintenance, which can not be neglected in any case. From time to time, wood will have to be treated with special antiseptic agents that will prolong its service life.
- A greenhouse made of wood, which is operated in conditions of temperature changes or high humidity, may not last as long as we would like. Natural material will begin to deteriorate rapidly in a similar situation, even if it is pre-treated with protective compounds.
- Wood is a “tidbit” for all sorts of parasites. Some of them devour this material, which eventually leads to its exhaustion and destruction.
- It should be borne in mind that in the interior of the wooden greenhouse there will always be a shaded space due to the presence of thick frame structures. You can cope with this problem only if you correctly orient the construction on the site.
The disadvantages of such buildings are also important, however, many of them can be avoided if the tree is properly processed in time.
High-quality and eco-friendly greenhouses can be different.
- Attached. This construction is being built as an extension to the south wall of almost any building. This type of construction is the best solution for an economical person who wants to save free space on his plot, and does not want to spend extra money on a suitable roof (in this case it could be a film (spunbond or agrofibre), polycarbonate or glass). One of the parties to such a greenhouse is initially already prepared. Experts say that the most successful material to which you should do extensions is ceramic brick.
- Gable This form of greenhouse is one of the most popular and sought after. In most cases, on the sites there are exactly gable structures. In them, the angle of the roof rarely exceeds the mark of 30 degrees. In this building in the form of a house there is an opportunity to make vents right in the roof to ventilate the internal space.
- Circular. This design is characterized by an attractive appearance. It is very similar to a neat arbor or a separate corner for friendly gatherings. But keep in mind that the circular structures should be well ventilated, so they can not be left without additions in the form of vents.
- Arched. No less attractive are arch type greenhouses. They are ideal for growing different crops.
These buildings are divided by the main coating, which is present in them.
There are such options:
- from polycarbonate.
Considered the most economical film version. But it can not be called durable, because usually the film is only enough for one season, and this is very little. Glass parts are great for a wooden frame. They keep warm remarkably and look aesthetically pleasing. Often, however, these decisions cost a tidy sum, and are quite fragile. Polycarbonate can be a great alternative. It differs in good transparency, but at the same time costs many times cheaper than glass. Installing such coverage is not difficult even for a beginner in such matters.
The quality of the wood will directly depend on the quality of the frame, which will be the result. That is why it is so important to correctly select good materials so that the result does not make the hosts disappointed. Experts advise to give preference to larch. This breed combines a high level of density and strength characteristics, as well as resistance to rotting, characteristic of coniferous trees. The same wear-resistant and unpretentious considered spruce and pine, which are less susceptible to negative external influences. However, we must bear in mind that their strength characteristics can not be called ideal. Frames and supporting structures of these wood species should be more dense and massive.
Oak, beech and teak are perfect for hardwood. It is permissible to use these types, but if you do not have the relevant experience, it is better to choose a different raw material, since the listed rocks are more difficult to process, which is why it is not so easy to work with them. Without having in stock special joiner's machines, it will be too difficult to make a greenhouse from larch. Under these conditions, you risk spoiling the material, and not achieving the desired result.
Regardless of what kind of wood you chose to make a greenhouse, you need to remember that it must meet certain requirements for its quality:
- the permitted moisture level of wooden bars should be no more than 20-22%;
- in no case do not use a tree with putrid tracks for the construction of a greenhouse (even if they are very small), as well as traces of tree parasites;
- There should not be many knots, deep cracks and chips on the timber.
For the manufacture of frames, experts recommend using a bar 50x50. For supports bearing parts of small greenhouses (less than 3 m in width) it is permissible to use elements with similar parameters. As for the specimens in which the slope is more than 6 m wide, additional fastening will be required here.
As for the covering material for a wooden greenhouse, the most common options were listed above.
Wooden buildings can be made both compact and modest, and very serious, with large dimensions. The choice of the optimal size depends on the area of the site, as well as the personal preferences of the owners of the villa or of a private house. Of course, on a small land too large structure is better not to install, because it takes a lot of space and can look disharmonious in such an environment. It is better to build a small greenhouse - it will look great in a small area.
Many people are interested in, what are the standard sizes of wooden greenhouses. The answer is simple - there are no such standards. As mentioned earlier, it all depends on the desires of the consumer.
The main advantage of a spacious structure is that in its conditions it will be possible to place a lot of landings. However, we must not forget that the larger the structure, the harder it is to warm it to the required values.
The following important components should fit inside the greenhouse, without which it would not be very comfortable to use it:
- a free central passage, that is, a path that passes in the middle — you should be comfortable walking along it. Usually this zone is about 1 m wide;
- approach to plants - you must have access to absolutely all the plants planted in the greenhouse;
- beds can have almost any size. Most often, this parameter varies from 1 to 1.5 m in width. Making them even wider does not make much sense;
- as for the height parameter, it must be such that a person can be in the greenhouse without bending or bending over. The optimal parameter is 2.5 m.
How to build in the country?
It is possible to build a wooden greenhouse with your own hands. To achieve a good result, you need to refer to materials that meet all requirements. In addition, it is important to follow all the steps step by step instructions. Consider in stages how you can build such a structure on the site.
It is possible to build a standard frame construction with a base of 90x90 mm bars. Tie racks at the top and bottom in this case will be runs. On top will be a truss roof system with two slopes. The end walls will need to be supplemented with two doors. Between the racks will be a blank panel, assembled from thick boards. In the future, they need to be enclosed in frames. The upper part and the roof in this building it is permissible to arrange glass. To bring this simple project to life, you will need the following components:
- bars with a section of 90x90 mm - 4 pcs. 4.2 m long;
- 4 things. with a length of 3 m;
- 12 pcs. 3.6 m each;
- 38 pcs. - 1.8 m
You will also need a half-bar with a section of 54x90 mm:
- 2 pcs. 3 m long;
- 4 things. 4.2 m long;
- 24 pieces - 2.4 m each;
- 28 pcs. - 1.8 m each;
- 34 pcs. - 1.2 m each;
- 102 pieces - at 0.9 m.
You will also need 6 plywood sheets, nails, antiseptic composition for wood, roof eaves, metal handles and door locks, door hinges. First, it will be necessary to create the foundation and foundation of the frame structure. For a greenhouse, it is permissible to prepare a tape type foundation. First you need to collect and decompose the lower part of the greenhouse frame on the waterproofing material. These components should be thoroughly smeared with antiseptics. On foundation blocks, you will need to install racks of walls, the cross section of which is also 90x90 mm.
Racks will need to connect with each other using strapping in half a timber from a bar. On the side girders it is worth leaving marks for fixing the rafter beams. Also need to do slots slope.
Next, you need to assemble the frame bases of the gables, using the racks prepared from a very dense plank. Board, related to the ridge, should be placed under the rafter bars in the previously prepared slots. Thanks to this technique, the glass panels at the top will be much easier to install. Rafters must be assembled using construction nails whose length is 100-150 mm. Be sure to check the flatness of the slopes using a special cord. Carefully and thoroughly coat the entire wooden structure with an antiseptic solution.
Now we need to correctly install the panels and doors.
Consider in stages how this can be done.
- First you need to make all the necessary parts. It is necessary to connect all elements of the frames at the same angle. The boards belonging to the panels will need to be inserted into the frames, having previously selected a quarter in their details, that is, a special groove intended for the installation of the boards of the canvas. Then the workpiece will need to be cut at the right angles, starting from the desired size. The upper frame should be prepared for fixing glass. Panels should be assembled from properly dried boards.
- Now you need to install the panel. It is necessary to begin these works from end ceilings. Installing parts is required on the "finish" nails with small caps. It is advisable to take fasteners with a length of 75-100 mm. Side walls should be assembled in the same way. During installation work, it is important to consider that the side panels will be wider than the end panels. The panels will need to be fixed between the racks. They also need treatment with antiseptic.
- Now you can proceed to the installation of door panels. In the openings of the end walls should hang the door lightweight frame structure. As for the glazing, it can be either full or partial - up to half. The handle (it is advisable to take a piece of metal) must be fixed on the board in the door leaf. With the help of the doors, the ventilation in the greenhouse will be regulated, so they will not need to be tightened with a grid.
The next step will be the glazing of the gable details and the roof. At first it is necessary to install a bead on the gable and supplement it with a coat of sealant. You will need to insert pre-fitted glass into the prepared nests. In a similar way, fragile parts will need to be fixed from the outside, and then fixed with thin nails. Fix the windows in the same way on the roof. In this case, the support will be the rail, which is nailed to the side bases of the truss beam. The glasses will need to be seated on the sealing compound and fixed with a bead and thin nails.
Having completed the glazing of the roof of the greenhouse, it is necessary to nail the wind board to the end details of the rafter beams. Thus, the building will gain a finished look.
Tips and tricks
Before proceeding to the direct construction of the greenhouse, it will be necessary to draw up a detailed drawing (diagram) and a project for the future construction. Based on the data transferred to the paper, it will be much easier to calculate the extent to which you will need construction materials. Greenhouses need to be built on a quality basis. It will be necessary to remove all debris and weeds from the area in which the foundation is planned. Do not make a greenhouse in the place where there are significant bumps and drops.
Do not forget to process wood with special protective chemistry. If you do not want to spend money on it, then you can get by with alternative compositions - processed lube or drying oil. Use these substances will need 2 times a year - in the fall and spring. There is no point in making a wooden greenhouse too high. Such a self-made construction will not be sustainable - it will start to shake from side to side, and it will not be able to warm up to the desired level.
If you decide to further finish the construction of wood, then you need to consider that it is permissible to paint this material if the temperature is at least 3 degrees outside. Only in these circumstances, the paint will dry for 2 days, and then crystallize within 3 days. Do not forget to process wooden structures with antiseptic substances both inside and outside. In order to have a real sense of the means used, they are recommended to be applied on surfaces in 2 or 3 layers depending on the budget of the owners.
Be sure to choose wood of suitable quality. Consider: if you use in the construction of natural material that has not been dried to the optimum level, the greenhouse can very soon "lead."
Choose a specific covering material, based on the climatic conditions in your area of residence. The door of the greenhouse should be located on the leeward side. Do not install it in places where strong winds blow most often. Remember that wind boards and skate must not only be properly placed in their places, but also processed conscientiously. These parts must be sanded and coated, so that the polyethylene film adjacent to them does not tear the poor-quality surface.
If you use polycarbonate popular today as a covering material, then you need to make the necessary holes in it in advance.
If you do not want to carry out the construction of a standard greenhouse in the form of a house, then you can refer to the variant of Mittleider (another name is “American”). In such structures there is a variable geometry of the roof. In this case, the plane of the slopes are at different levels. In these buildings there is excellent ventilation, providing an ideal microclimate inside the greenhouse. The level of illumination in this product is also close to ideal.
Successful examples and options
As mentioned earlier, greenhouses made of wood can not only perform their main function, but also become a real decoration of the summer cottage. These designs often contain very interesting decorative details, for example, elegant arches, arcs or carved components.
So, on the site will look great white wooden building with a gable roof, decorated with polycarbonate. It is permissible to equip the side walls of the greenhouse with glass to half the structure. The construction will look more interesting if its skate is equipped with embossed wooden elements. It is necessary to surround a greenhouse-like stone paths and neatly trimmed lawn. The result will be a low-key, but very harmonious ensemble.
A tall and narrow greenhouse made of unpainted light wood with glass inserts in the ceilings and the roof will become a bright accent of landscape design, if its ridge is supplemented with a snow-white forged rail with sharp details like peaks. Next to this building should be put a few dark pots with live green plants, and near the front door to place white angular vases with tall flowers / bushes. Such a simple, but interesting design will look impressive against the background of rich flower beds and fluffy tall trees.
Laconic greenhouse with dark wood with glass walls and a gable roof will easily fit into almost any landscape design. This low-key building will look great in an ensemble with a well-groomed lawn and neatly decorated base. The last is permissible to finish at its discretion. A company with a dark tree will look great and brick, and masonry.
From a tree it is possible to build a non-standard greenhouse in the form of a kind of ball. For this option, only a covering material such as agrofibre is suitable, since it is plastic. Such a structure can be supplemented with beautiful flower plantations near the entrance.
To learn how to build a greenhouse with your own hands, see the following video.