Greenhouse: the types and structure of the device
Modern cottage or country plot allows you to grow a full crop of vegetables. But in order for plants in any climate to feel great, they need the right, cozy and comfortable home. In this capacity, special devices are usually used to provide the young sprouts with the necessary protection.
When creating your own greenhouse, it is important to pay attention to which structures are used as auxiliary means in the cultivation of vegetable crops. Greenhouses gained their popularity in the second half of the 20th century and quickly became an indispensable tool in the work of gardeners. To understand what it is, helps a more thorough study of the design features. In fact, a greenhouse is called a lightweight portable solution that is installed on open ground and protects plants from the effects of external factors. Originally, home-made designs were made of metal rod and plastic film. The frame mini-greenhouses with glazing were also practiced, but their use turned out to be too inconvenient for gardening and personal subsidiary farming.
In addition, all greenhouses can be subdivided into options with solar heating and heated from below with heat deposited to a depth of more than 15 cm.
If you compare greenhouses and greenhouses among themselves, the differences will be obvious.
- Low altitude. For a greenhouse, it reaches 1.2 m. Greenhouses have a minimum height of 2 meters and easily accommodate a person in full growth.
- Frameless design. Product variants on arcs are completely fixed in the ground without effort, simply by immersing their ends in the ground.
- Short term operation. The breakdown is made mainly for the period of spring cool, when the night temperature drops to almost zero.
But progress does not stand still. Today, it is easy to find hybrids of greenhouses and greenhouses on the garden beds, which are used almost year-round. Their main purpose is the cultivation of seedlings in special containers. In this case, the internal space can have:
- equipped rows of shelves, on which boxes are installed, as a rule, two tiers - for sprouting seeds and fitting already dowsed plants to the desired growth;
- additional arched-arc structures mounted over the shelves for securing the second film layer;
- additional lighting devices mounted under the ceiling structures;
- placed in the space between the shelves and the soil heating circuits, providing the necessary thermoregulation.
All existing and popular types of greenhouses can be divided into the following categories.
- Mini - different compact dimensions and suitable for growing seedlings, and for year-round cultivation on the balcony of various types of garden crops. In addition, they are actively used in rooting of capricious plants in growing plants - shrub roses, currant cuttings or raspberries. The microparnet on the windowsill ensures an optimum ratio of the occupied area and productivity when growing fresh greens or dwarf varieties of vegetables.
- Garden - used to grow a variety of fruit crops, established during the initial planting of cuttings before rooting.
- Winter - Tunnel or frame version with a pre-erected foundation. Products of stationary type can be operated for growing fruits and vegetables in large volumes. Year-round use is recommended only within moderately continental climatic conditions. Also in these designs is common version of the framework "breadbasket".
- Prefab - mobile designs for short-term seasonal operation. The best solution for use in home gardens. Allow you to move products around the site without any difficulty, send them to winter storage. This type includes film-ready structures, characterized by convenience and high speed of installation. This greenhouse goes on sale on PVC or metal frame, may have different characteristics.
- Round - such options are especially in demand for growing heat-loving plants. Externally, the design may look like an Eskimo igloo. In addition, when self-made, an umbrella design is often used, in which the dome has the shape of a hemisphere consisting of individual “petals”.
- Folding - A simple design can have a rather high frame. Selected sizes can reach 2 m vertically. The frame in such products is aluminum, lightweight and functional. In addition, accordion products on a plastic frame are widely used. When dismantling this option is easily folded with an accordion, providing opportunities for successful and long-term operation. On average, this product is enough for 4 seasons.
- Sliding The greenhouse with opening roof is an excellent solution for continuous operation. This design option is usually made on the basis of a metal frame. It has a damage resistant polycarbonate coating.
- "House" - one of the easiest options for execution. It has a gable design. The ridge serves as a fixative, the coating can be polyethylene or polycarbonate. The base on the rectangular frame makes this instrumental solution truly simple and convenient to operate. Among its shortcomings - weak resistance to the effects of wind or snow loads. It is easily tilted and can only be considered as a temporary structure.
The range of greenhouses for seasonal or permanent use is quite diverse. Among the presented options for finished products from different manufacturers can distinguish a variety of options for plants at different stages of growth. It is worth paying attention to the fact that reviews of industrial production greenhouses today look quite positive. Summer residents provide easy deployment and storage of ready-made solutions. In addition, the undoubted advantage of purchasing equipment for growing vegetables and berry crops can be called the simplicity of its operation. The ready-made kit already contains everything necessary for the successful cultivation of the most capricious plants, makes it easy to select the best solutions for installation in a country house or garden. Consider the most popular ready-made solutions in more detail.
"A bountiful harvest"
An innovative solution for growing plants in the open field. Designed for the early disembarkation of garden and garden crops. This greenhouse model is able to withstand operation when the atmospheric temperature drops to -5 degrees. In addition, the fruits in this case will not be afraid of wind loads and attacks of harmful insects. The use of agrofibre instead of film makes the ventilation process much easier. Polyethylene arcs are not afraid of corrosion, they are quite light, but at the same time durable. The material for covering is mounted in arcs. When installing, the folded arched structure is laid out and fixed in the ground with the aid of pointed elements at the ends of the arcs.
Greenhouses "rich harvest" differ in the design of high fortress. Products are equipped with everything necessary for operation in harsh weather conditions. Another distinctive feature is the use of exclusively environmentally friendly materials. Modern agrofibre provides optimum formation of a microclimate for cultivation of fruit and vegetable cultures. Through a special canvas air is well circulated, but insects do not enter. The material acts as a natural filter capable of providing a high level of UV protection.
Compact portable solution - greenhouse "Snail", has always been popular with gardeners and gardeners. It has no restrictions on the method of installation. You can use the structure on the foundation or put directly into the ground. A small height of 75-85 cm is compensated here by the convenience of microclimate control. Retractable sash folds like a snail shell. Durable metal frame makes the whole greenhouse really sustainable. The covering material is durable and durable polycarbonate. The model is mobile, suitable for moving throughout the season.
The presented design variant is characterized by maximum versatility. The cost of a turnkey solution, in terms of long-term use, looks quite attractive. The materials used make the equipment for growing seedlings an excellent option for year-round operation. Greenhouse opens on both sides. It can be used to grow most crops. It is necessary to take into account only the height restriction - no more than 85 cm for one plant. The budget price of the design on this background looks really attractive.
The popular greenhouse "Kabachok" today is an excellent option for use on a year-round basis. As part of its design - only proven and most relevant technological solutions. The metal frame of 25x25 mm square metal profile provides high strength and a sufficient level of rigidity to withstand wind, snow and precipitation. Polycarbonate is used as a covering material. The metal parts of the frame structure are painted. As part of the greenhouse - lifting walls with special stops for fixation. Rather high, it creates all the conditions for the successful cultivation of climbing and climbing plants, tall tomatoes.
Despite the rather solid construction, this type of greenhouse is difficult to recommend for winter operation in regions with a cold climate. The arched design reduces the amount of light penetrating into the interior; at sub-zero temperatures, combined with a short light day, this can have a serious negative effect on the cultivation of heat-loving crops.
Products of "Volya"
The Volia company, which produces modern greenhouses under film, is a manufacturer of one of the most popular options on the market - the Gherkin model. The long arched greenhouse is made in a five-meter version with a width of 1 m and a height of 1.1 m. The frame structure is made of a durable and practical profile with a galvanized coating. The budget solution is inexpensive, but allows you to reliably protect plants from the cold and bad weather. A greenhouse can be a good alternative to a greenhouse where there is no possibility for mounting a frame construction. The film is securely fastened and does not slide off. Free slats facilitate the opening of the spans during airing or watering, harvesting. The ready greenhouse is delivered in compactly packed form.
"Agronomist" 6 sections
The Agronom model of 6 sections is a modern greenhouse with clips, capable of providing the optimal ratio of cost, quality and durability of the structure. The frame of the product is made of safe PVC, which does not emit harmful substances into the atmosphere. In addition, there are modern clamps made of polymeric materials that can reliably secure the raised covering material on the surface of the arcs. However, with this task various variants of the most usual clothespins are not worse coped. Instead of the film it is proposed to apply a coating of agrotextiles. The finished design maintains an optimal microclimate inside, does not allow the plants to freeze or rot due to an overabundance of moisture.
The convenience of a greenhouse in use provides the opportunity for easy displacement of agrofabric through sections when weeding or watering. The material is designed with a margin, allows you to tightly press the edge to the ground. In addition, the finished product is able to provide the highest possible level of protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays. The product is installed directly into the ground, does not require installation of the frame, creates the best conditions for obtaining high yields (the manufacturer promises an increase of up to 50% compared to open ground).
The original greenhouse "Dayas" is presented in the product line of the manufacturer in a fairly wide range. There are compact solutions for providing a microclimate comfortable for strawberries or for germinating seeds, as well as classic and height-enhanced models for garden crops with a significant length of shoots. The design of the product uses a wide range of innovative solutions. In the frame part is used arc PND. The base material is a special non-woven polypropylene material "Rayfenhauser", designed for individual orders.
Among the obvious advantages of greenhouses produced under this brand, we can distinguish a variety of design options. In addition, the products are adapted for use in a variety of operating conditions. It can be chosen for home or garden, ordered for use on the plot. High durability of the case allows avoiding its damage in case of strong wind. Non-woven material is safe for use in the rain, easy to dry, easy to store.
The design of the Tulip greenhouse is recognized as one of the most successful among all the options used in Russia today. The opening roof here provides excellent access to the sun's plants. In addition, the side panel also shifts, creating the ability to use natural pollination. When mounted on a foundation, it can be used as a stationary solution for year-round use. The design is made on the principle of breadbox, the sash when opening come one after the other, without creating visible inconveniences during operation.
The compact size of the greenhouse makes it the best choice for use in growing flowers for sale, cultivating fresh greens. Cellular polycarbonate as a cover creates the conditions for the introduction of heating systems inside with minimal heat loss. The kit comes packaged. Assembly takes a minimum of time, does not require special knowledge or skills.
The Accordion is a modern greenhouse with all the advantages of an easy and effective temporary shelter. It is compact, has at its core plastic arches, characterized by flexibility and durability, can be easily mounted on the bed due to the direct installation of polymer arches in the polypropylene base. Covering material - agrotextiles, allows for good transparency. Rigid fastening of the fabric is located at the top, on the sides it hangs down freely and allows you to provide optimal ventilation, it gives convenience when weeding the garden. The dismantled construction is assembled by an accordion and does not take up much space during storage. The included polypropylene frame has the strength, reliability and functionality, it can withstand considerable mechanical loads.
When installing the arc of polymeric materials are mounted directly into the frame base. No screw connections are needed - just connect the elements together. The plastic base has a high corrosion resistance, is not afraid of contact with chemically aggressive substances. The affordable cost of this model allows it to provide attractiveness to summer residents and gardeners, leading personal subsidiary farming.
The type of greenhouse, known as the "tunnel", is widely used by manufacturers of various nominal structures. It is quite simple, functional and at the same time provides opportunities for the rapid deployment of a protective structure on the soil surface. For structures of this type is characterized by a linear, parallel arrangement of arcs or other supports in relation to each other. A connecting element is necessarily installed between the individual blocks. Most often it is a stationary rigid frame on which the greenhouse is mounted along the entire length.
The popularity of tunnel structures due to their features. They are really simple and practical to install, do not require special skills for installation, are suitable for ridges of different lengths and widths. It is worth adding that it is tunnel products that can be called direct heirs of Soviet traditions in greenhouse farming. That they are buying, if you do not plan to leave a shelter in the garden for the winter.
Reviews of all popular and sought-after models of greenhouses look quite attractive. When selecting a specific technological solution, it is worth considering the availability of free space and a number of other important and significant issues. So, the models under the film, although they have an affordable price, are not very practical in the long term. But their counterparts with covering materials on the basis of agrotextiles fully justify their purchase and are ready to be used for several seasons.
Equally important is the correct choice of materials for the manufacture of greenhouses. Each of the options has its advantages and disadvantages. Consider them in more detail.
- Film. Polyethylene constructions are considered to be the most attractive from the point of view of affordability. The annual replacement of the outer coating costs the cottagers inexpensively, while providing excellent conditions for growing seedlings or short-growing crops. The classic film transmits light well, but does not regulate the intensity of UV radiation. Reinforced products are more durable and can last more than two seasons. Another drawback of film coating is its impermeability. The absence of conditions for air circulation creates the same "greenhouse effect", which leads to the accumulation of condensate inside the greenhouse.
- Covering material or spunbond. Non-woven polymeric cloths provide the opportunity for the formation of a perfect microclimate in the greenhouse. With their help, you can cover the beds of any area, to ensure a high level of light transmission and natural ventilation of the space. Watering in this case can also be performed on top of the material. It is worth paying attention to the fact that in this case you can not worry about protecting plants from the effects of insect pests or birds (during the harvest period). Unlike film, this solution provides opportunities for long-term operation over several seasons.
- Polycarbonate - an original solution that allows you to turn a temporary structure into a practically stationary solution. The sheet material is characterized by excellent flexibility, translucency, excellent thermal insulation properties. In addition, polycarbonate greenhouses are easy and simple to install. In addition, it is worth considering that, in the presence of additional heating, such a greenhouse can be operated year-round, without additional effort and cost, providing the opportunity for successful vegetable growing or early preparation of seedlings for transfer to open ground.
- Glass. An expensive greenhouse solution is also fragile and impractical. Modern summer residents replace silicate glass products with plexiglass. With a thickness of over 4 mm, excellent thermal insulation is ensured. High transparency makes glass greenhouses a good enough and convenient solution for long-term use in a balcony or garden household. Among the obvious drawbacks of such structures are their massiveness and excessive brittleness.
- Agrofibre - compromise innovative greenhouse coverings. Available in black and white, they provide an opportunity to successfully achieve a comfortable microclimate inside the shelter. Proved an increase in yield of vegetable and fruit crops when using agrofibre and a significant increase in seed germination. In addition, it is important to pay great attention to the fact that not the cheapest coating can be used for 6 seasons. Accordingly, in the long run, it turns out to be more profitable.
No less important is the choice of grounds for the greenhouse. Today they are made from fiberglass reinforcement, shaped pipes. Among the homemade options you can find a wooden greenhouse - the most budget option, most often used in conjunction with the film. Industrial production usually involves using painted or galvanized steel profiles that can last up to 15 years without replacement. The lightest and most compact models are equipped with plastic or PVC arches and frame structures for their fastening.
Appointment and location
When choosing a greenhouse for growing seedlings or cultivating heat-loving plants in cold climates, it is worth remembering about the individual features of each such design. So, the shelter for peppers will differ significantly from the house for flowers or melons. For beds with less capricious inhabitants, for example, at the stage of seedling formation and during its hardening period, unheated cold greenhouses are used. In them, the average temperature is maintained at + 4-7 degrees, which makes it easy to create conditions for growing in a cold climate of beets, peas and many other crops.
Semi-cold greenhouses at any time of the year allow the internal temperature does not fall below 10-13 degrees Celsius. The installation of infrared heating devices allows for the winter heating of such structures and creates conditions for year-round cultivation of most garden and garden crops. Such designs are suitable for growing flowers, vegetables, berries.
Warm greenhouses - mini-greenhouse options, allow you to provide the best opportunities for the cultivation of rare and exotic heat-loving plants. Orchids and other colors here can be grown even on the balcony, if you choose a standalone design.
In determining the most suitable place for a greenhouse should pay attention to the following factors.
- Features of the landscape. If you install a greenhouse in a lowland, heat and humidity will form climatic conditions that are not very suitable for most plants in the middle belt. In addition, when erecting on a foundation, one should take into account the level of groundwater. Plate and pile constructions will help compensate for excessive soil moisture.
- Type of soil. Greenhouses are best installed on sandy or sandy soils. If the base of the soil is clay, you must first make the excavation and land preparation. Clay and sand will help to drain an excessively dense fraction, a fertile layer is poured on top.
- The slope of the site. The larger it is, the higher the likelihood that the installation will have to be carried out on a special basis, compensating for all possible elevation differences. If you do not foresee the need to build a foundation, the heating of the soil may be uneven.
- Orientation to the cardinal points. It is recommended to lay greenhouse structures strictly from north to south or from east to west. In this case, it will be possible to ensure maximum capture of the sun's rays. Greenhouses located meridianally are an excellent solution for seasonal growing of vegetables. But their orientation from north to south will not help to warm the plants during colder periods. Here it is necessary to apply the latitudinal location so that the greenhouses run from east to west.
- Climatic features of the region of growth. In open spaces in northern latitudes, it is better to provide additional windscreen, install shields or other structures. In a warmer climate, planting a hedge will perfectly cope with the role of a protective barrier.
- Rules for the location of objects with the requirements of safety standards. It is not recommended to have greenhouses directly next to the house, household or other buildings due to possible shading or snow falling off the roof in winter. In the absence of opportunities for remote placement of protective structures put on the south side of residential buildings and other buildings.
- The proximity of communication lines. For summer and seasonal facilities, this factor is not of great importance. But if we are talking about options for greenhouses with year-round heating, it is much more radical to solve the problem of water supply and lighting. Laying linear communications is recommended even when building the foundation.
If all significant points are taken into account, you can not worry that the result of the construction of the greenhouse structure will really meet all the expectations. From the choice of location depends largely on the yield of planted plants. In addition, the convenience of servicing the finished solution will be really high.
If we are talking about a spacious area, dedicated to the seasonal cultivation of garden plants, you can choose a large and long version with a film-coated or polycarbonate top. In the long (5-8 m) shelter you can grow up to 15-25 bushes of tomatoes or peppers, to harvest a rich crop of cucumbers. The compact arch greenhouse is easily constructed and installed on any area of the site. It is ideal for installation in the country in the season of sprouting and hardening seedlings, will help to realize the dreams of a variety of vegetables grown.
Open-top models of greenhouses are easy to maintain and allow you to achieve excellent results when growing thermophilic crops. On the balcony, a small display case under glass or polycarbonate construction would be more appropriate. Among the glazed structures is also very popular option "house" with the possibility of easy control of the level of ventilation.
Pre-prepared and well-chosen greenhouse is an important component of the successful cultivation of vegetable crops. Modern industry offers the widest choice of ready-made solutions for different categories of customers. Most of them do not require complex assembly, have an attractive appearance, well protects the seedlings from the cold. Of course, greenhouses can not be regarded as a full replacement for the greenhouse. But if the site does not allow you to turn around, such a compromise solution will definitely be the way.
How to make a greenhouse or garden bed "for the lazy" with your own hands, see the video below.