To care for cucumbers growing in a greenhouse and in the open air is necessary in different ways. How to grow this culture in a closed and open field, read on this page.
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse and on the street is different. In a protected ground, the culture has increased requirements for care and maintenance, here they are much more affected by pests and diseases.
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the open field, what is the difference
The main differences are as follows.
In addition, the requirements of varieties and hybrids to care are somewhat different. Hybrids are more demanding to feed and water than ordinary varieties.
Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Cucumbers are planted in the greenhouse as soon as possible, as soon as the earth warms to 17 ° C to a depth of 20-25 cm. The second term of planting is the beginning of August, when the cucumbers are already leaving the street. With late-summer sowing, the crop is harvested at the end of September.
Either parthenocarpic or self-pollinated cucumbers are suitable for greenhouses. They do not need bees to set greens.
The main thing when caring for greenhouse cucumbers is watering, feeding and air humidity.
Terms of sowing greenhouse cucumbers
Greenhouse cucumbers are usually planted for 2 terms:
- spring for early production;
- near the end of summer for the autumn harvest.
The specific time depends on the weather and region. In the south, seeds are sown in the greenhouse in mid-to late April, in the north - in the second decade of May. To produce autumn greens in the north and in the middle lane cucumbers are planted in the greenhouse in the second decade of July.
Fresh cucumbers can be collected in September. In the south, planting dates - mid-end of August, the greens will appear in October. But the late summer planting season is too risky, especially when grown in unheated greenhouses. In the case of cold, rainy autumn the risk of being left without a crop is very high.
At whatever time greenhouse cucumbers are grown, they always need warm soil. Therefore, in the greenhouse arrange dung, in extreme cases, compost beds. These components are biofuels, emit a large amount of heat, which contributes to the normal development of plants even in very cold weather.
Sow seeds only in warm soil, otherwise they will not grow. The soil temperature at a depth of 15-20 cm should be at least 17 ° C. To accelerate its warming in the spring, it is watered with boiling water 2-3 times every other day.
Neighbors in the greenhouse
Most often at cottages there are 2-3-row greenhouses in which cultures are grown together. For the cultivation of cucumbers together with other greenhouse crops, it is necessary to take care of the requirements of these crops.
Cucumbers require high air humidity, shading from direct sun and air temperature is desirable at 23-28 ° C.
And still it is better to grow cucumbers in monoplants. It should also be taken into account that the culture in greenhouses is grown only for early and late harvest (the exception is the northern regions). Therefore, after harvesting cucumbers, before planting seedlings of other greenhouse crops, the land needs to be cooked again. After all, neither peppers, nor tomatoes, nor eggplants tolerate manure or fresh compost, so it will have to be removed from the garden.
Care for greenhouse cucumbers
Cucumbers in greenhouses are grown in one stem, so that there are no overgrowths and a favorable environment for the development of diseases at the bottom.
Formation of plants.
When caring for a cucumber bed, no thickening should be allowed, otherwise continuous thickets are formed and there are practically no flowers and fruits.
Top dressing is the main thing in caring for cucumbers from sowing to harvesting. Cucumbers are extremely voracious. To get the harvest out of season feeding do once a week. With summer cultivation - once every 10 days. Hybrids require much more nutrition than varietal plants, so they are fed every 5-7 days.
To ensure all necessary things for cucumbers, you should always have on hand a herbal infusion, an infusion of ash (100 g / 10 l), a full complex fertilizer, kalimag and, of course, manure infusion.
Root top dressings alternate with extra root, and organic - with mineral. The rate of feeding of hybrids is 3-4 times higher than that of varietal plants.
Watering is carried out only with warm settled water. Plants need high soil moisture, so they are watered at least 3 times a week, and on hot days - daily. On cold and cloudy days, the culture is watered very moderately. Watering is carried out in the morning, they can be combined with dressings.
Shading for greenhouse cucumbers is desirable. To do this, a mosquito net is thrown on the trellis. Especially necessary pritenyat cucumbers in the afternoon.
Harvesting is carried out every 2-3 days. Overgrown Zelentsy inhibit the emergence of new ovaries. No matter how well the plant is fed, it gives all the nutrients only to the seed fruit. From the timely collection of greenhouses depends on the quality of the crop and the duration of fruiting.
How to care for cucumbers in the open field
Caring for cucumbers in the open field is much easier than in the greenhouse. Now cucumbers are more often grown on the street than in greenhouses.
For open ground, all types of cucumbers are suitable: bee-pollinated and hybrids, bush and strongly gliding (when grown on a trellis). The main rule when sowing a crop is separate planting of bee-pollinated plants and hybrids. It is impossible to prevent cross-pollination of these species, otherwise the quality of the crop will be extremely low, and he will be small. In small areas, it is better to plant either only varieties or only hybrids.
Place for cucumbers
Culture grows well under the trees, then it will not be necessary to make it an artificial shading, and the lashes have much to curl. The only thing that needs to be done is to clear the soil of weeds, since cucumbers cannot be weaved. When pulling weeds, the roots of cucumbers are easily damaged and the plants die. In extreme cases, the weeds are cut. With the growth of borage, he himself will drown out any weeds.
A place for cucumbers is allocated where pumpkin cultures did not grow last year, and early cabbage, onions, legumes or strawberries were grown.
Dunnage beds for plants are prepared only in the northern regions on cold, poorly warmed soils. In all other cases, manure is brought in from the fall, closing it up to 20 cm.
On the street, cucumbers are grown by direct sowing of seeds in the ground. Seasonal cultivation is now practically not used, because a lot of attacks, and the harvest is lower.
The determining factor for sowing is soil temperature. If it is below 17 ° C, then it is impossible to sow cucumbers, because for a crop it is cold and the seeds will die. For the speedy warming up of the earth it is covered with a film.
Before sowing, the seeds are usually not germinated, they are only soaked for 20-30 minutes in warm water and sown immediately.
The term of sowing in the northern regions is June 5-15, in the middle lane - the end of May, with a cold long spring - the beginning of June. In the south, seed sowing is carried out in early May.
The seeding depth is 1.5-2 cm, the distance in the row is 25-40 cm. It depends on what cucumbers are grown. Bush plants need less space, they have a small area of food, so they sow 25-30 cm. Medium-weaving weakly branching cucumbers are planted after 30 cm, strong-gliding varieties 40 cm.
In cold weather, crops are covered with any covering material (film, lutarsil, hay).
Care after emergence
After the emergence of seedlings, covering material is left only in cold weather and in the case of night frosts. When frosted shoots, it is better to cover with a double layer of a thin covering material than a single layer of thick (for example, a thick film). It is very good to use hay from night frosts by milling the cucumbers. Under such a shelter, young plants can tolerate temperatures down to -6 ° C without any particular damage.
7 days after the emergence of seedlings in cucumbers, the first true leaf appears. Subsequent leaves are formed with an interval of 5-8 days.
After the appearance of this sheet, the main care is watering and feeding. Fertilizer consumption rate for hybrids is 4-5 times more than for bee-pollinated varieties. Feed the plants as well as in greenhouse conditions.
At an early age, cucumber beds do not weed because of the fragility of the root system of the culture. If the plot is overgrown with weeds, and the ground is compacted, then the weeds are cut. Loosen the seedlings can be no closer than 25-30 cm from the plant. If the earth is very dense and swum, then to improve aeration, it is pierced with forks to the full depth of the teeth at a distance not closer than 20-25 cm from the plant.
Caring for a fruiting plantation
Cucumbers in open ground are grown either in fossil (horizontally), or tied to a trellis.
With horizontal cultivation, care is reduced to regular watering and feeding. Cucumbers do not form, whips grow freely in all directions. One can only pinch the main stem of the bee-pollinated varieties after the 4th leaf to stimulate branching and the formation of female flowers.
Watering is done on the area, because after the growth of plants it is impossible to find the main stem. The consumption rate of water 20-25 l / m2.
With vertical growing plants after the 4th leaf tied to the string and sent up. From the sinuses of the lower 4 leaves remove all the shoots, buds and flowers. The remaining side lashes are allowed on the trellis. The main fruiting of cucumbers in the open field always goes on rods 3-5 orders of magnitude.
Optimal for cucumbers are the following indicators
|Air temperature before fruiting, ° C||24-26||22-24||18-19|
|Air temperature during fruiting, ° C||26-28||24-26||20-22|
|Soil temperature, ° С||25-27||24-26||22-24|
|Relative humidity, %||80-85||75-80||75-80|
If it is very hot and low humidity outside, then to raise it early in the morning cucumbers are poured with rain. Plants should be shaded a few hours after sunrise for the water to dry. Otherwise, there will be burns on the leaves, and holes will appear.
Difficulties and problems in growing cucumbers
Growing cucumbers is actually not as difficult as it seems at first glance. But they require systematic, painstaking care.