Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the open field

To care for cucumbers growing in a greenhouse and in the open air is necessary in different ways. How to grow this culture in a closed and open field, read on this page.

Content:
  • What is the difference care for cucumbers in open and protected ground?
  • How to care for cucumbers in the greenhouse.
  • Care for cucumbers in an open garden.
  • What problems arise when growing cucumbers
  • Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse and on the street is different. In a protected ground, the culture has increased requirements for care and maintenance, here they are much more affected by pests and diseases.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the open field, what is the difference

    The main differences are as follows.

  • In the greenhouse, as a rule, grow long-leafy loosely branching varieties. Neither shrub nor high-branching cucumbers are suitable for greenhouses. In the open ground you can grow any varieties and hybrids intended for such cultivation.
  • In the greenhouse, you can plant cucumbers for early (May-June) and late (September-October) harvest. In the open ground, cucumbers are grown only in summer, and neither early nor late Zelentsy are available here.
  • In closed ground cucumbers are in one stalk. They are not pinned on the street, allowing them to curl in all directions.
  • In the greenhouse it is necessary to monitor the humidity. Under the open sky somehow it can not be significantly affected.
  • In protected ground, it is advisable to plant cucumbers alone in order to avoid the occurrence of common diseases with other greenhouse crops. On the street with cucumbers, they often plant compatible crops whose leafy excretions prevent the cucumbers from being affected by diseases (onions, garlic), or prune plantings (maize).
  • Indoors, weeds are cut, they can not be weeded, because it can damage the root system of cucumbers. In the open ground, the overgrown plants themselves will drown any, even the most hardy, weeds, so borage, as a rule, is free from weeds.
  • Greenhouse cucumbers are much more often affected by diseases than street ones.
  • In the open field, the crop has practically no pests, while in the greenhouse it is often damaged by omnivorous pests.
  • In addition, the requirements of varieties and hybrids to care are somewhat different. Hybrids are more demanding to feed and water than ordinary varieties.

    Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse

    Cucumbers are planted in the greenhouse as soon as possible, as soon as the earth warms to 17 ° C to a depth of 20-25 cm. The second term of planting is the beginning of August, when the cucumbers are already leaving the street. With late-summer sowing, the crop is harvested at the end of September.

    Either parthenocarpic or self-pollinated cucumbers are suitable for greenhouses. They do not need bees to set greens.

  • Self-pollinated cucumbers have almost no male flowers. Pollen is carried by the wind. It can be transferred from stamens to a pistil of the same flower, it can also get on another flower both on the mother plant, and on any other. In any case, pollination occurs and the ovary is formed.
  • Partenokarpiki tied at all without pollination. In the fruits of their seeds are missing or are in their infancy.
  • 238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    The main thing when caring for greenhouse cucumbers is watering, feeding and air humidity.

    Terms of sowing greenhouse cucumbers

    Greenhouse cucumbers are usually planted for 2 terms:

    • spring for early production;
    • near the end of summer for the autumn harvest.

    The specific time depends on the weather and region. In the south, seeds are sown in the greenhouse in mid-to late April, in the north - in the second decade of May. To produce autumn greens in the north and in the middle lane cucumbers are planted in the greenhouse in the second decade of July.

    Fresh cucumbers can be collected in September. In the south, planting dates - mid-end of August, the greens will appear in October. But the late summer planting season is too risky, especially when grown in unheated greenhouses. In the case of cold, rainy autumn the risk of being left without a crop is very high.

    At whatever time greenhouse cucumbers are grown, they always need warm soil. Therefore, in the greenhouse arrange dung, in extreme cases, compost beds. These components are biofuels, emit a large amount of heat, which contributes to the normal development of plants even in very cold weather.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    Sow seeds only in warm soil, otherwise they will not grow. The soil temperature at a depth of 15-20 cm should be at least 17 ° C. To accelerate its warming in the spring, it is watered with boiling water 2-3 times every other day.

    Neighbors in the greenhouse

    Most often at cottages there are 2-3-row greenhouses in which cultures are grown together. For the cultivation of cucumbers together with other greenhouse crops, it is necessary to take care of the requirements of these crops.

    Cucumbers require high air humidity, shading from direct sun and air temperature is desirable at 23-28 ° C.

  • Cucumbers with tomatoes. Incompatible neighborhood. Although cultures tolerate each other well, they have completely different care requirements from planting to harvest. Tomatoes require dry air, drafts and high illumination. When grown together, it is the tomatoes that suffer the most and there is no good harvest. In addition, cultures have common diseases.
  • Cucumbers with peppers. Even less successful combination Pepper requires dry air, he does not like long ventilation, which is not avoided when grown with cucumbers. Peppers grow poorly at high temperatures, and cucumbers respond well to them. Pepper is affected by the cucumber mosaic virus, albeit to a lesser extent than tomatoes.
  • Cucumbers with eggplants. These cultures are most suitable for co-cultivation. Eggplants like high air humidity, frequent airing, high temperature.
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
  • And still it is better to grow cucumbers in monoplants. It should also be taken into account that the culture in greenhouses is grown only for early and late harvest (the exception is the northern regions). Therefore, after harvesting cucumbers, before planting seedlings of other greenhouse crops, the land needs to be cooked again. After all, neither peppers, nor tomatoes, nor eggplants tolerate manure or fresh compost, so it will have to be removed from the garden.

    Care for greenhouse cucumbers

    Cucumbers in greenhouses are grown in one stem, so that there are no overgrowths and a favorable environment for the development of diseases at the bottom.

    Formation of plants.

  • Hybrids. After the fourth leaf appears, the culture is tied to a trellis. With the appearance of side shoots they pinch. Buds and flowers are removed from the sinuses of the first 4 leaves. If they are not interrupted, the plant growth will be delayed, and the overall yield will decrease. The lowermost flowers take almost all the nutrients, but greens are formed too loose, and in the bee-pollinated varieties, these flowers are not tied at all. The main stem is twisted weekly around the string. After the 5th leaf, the lateral shoots that form are nipped over the 2nd leaf. And on these short whips formed Zelentsy. After the 11th leaf on the side shoots leave 3 nodes, and pinch the top. When the cucumbers reach the trellis, the whips are thrown over it and pinch the top of the main stem. Beginning to grow lateral shoots at the end of the main stem no longer dazzle, but give the opportunity to grow freely.
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    They form the main crop of Zelentsov.
  • Varieties are shaped differently. On the main stem, they mainly form male flowers, while female ones appear mainly on the side lashes. Above the 4th leaf, the main stem is pinched, and then the nearest bud gives a side shoot, replacing the main stem. It will be much more female flowers. Further nipping is the same as in hybrids: all lateral shoots that form are blinded after the 2nd leaf. When the whip will be thrown over the trellis, the shoots are no longer cut off, giving them the opportunity to branch.
  • When caring for a cucumber bed, no thickening should be allowed, otherwise continuous thickets are formed and there are practically no flowers and fruits.

    Top dressing is the main thing in caring for cucumbers from sowing to harvesting. Cucumbers are extremely voracious. To get the harvest out of season feeding do once a week. With summer cultivation - once every 10 days. Hybrids require much more nutrition than varietal plants, so they are fed every 5-7 days.

    To ensure all necessary things for cucumbers, you should always have on hand a herbal infusion, an infusion of ash (100 g / 10 l), a full complex fertilizer, kalimag and, of course, manure infusion.

    Root top dressings alternate with extra root, and organic - with mineral. The rate of feeding of hybrids is 3-4 times higher than that of varietal plants.

    Watering is carried out only with warm settled water. Plants need high soil moisture, so they are watered at least 3 times a week, and on hot days - daily. On cold and cloudy days, the culture is watered very moderately. Watering is carried out in the morning, they can be combined with dressings.

    Shading for greenhouse cucumbers is desirable. To do this, a mosquito net is thrown on the trellis. Especially necessary pritenyat cucumbers in the afternoon.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    Harvesting is carried out every 2-3 days. Overgrown Zelentsy inhibit the emergence of new ovaries. No matter how well the plant is fed, it gives all the nutrients only to the seed fruit. From the timely collection of greenhouses depends on the quality of the crop and the duration of fruiting.

    How to care for cucumbers in the open field

    Caring for cucumbers in the open field is much easier than in the greenhouse. Now cucumbers are more often grown on the street than in greenhouses.

    For open ground, all types of cucumbers are suitable: bee-pollinated and hybrids, bush and strongly gliding (when grown on a trellis). The main rule when sowing a crop is separate planting of bee-pollinated plants and hybrids. It is impossible to prevent cross-pollination of these species, otherwise the quality of the crop will be extremely low, and he will be small. In small areas, it is better to plant either only varieties or only hybrids.

    Place for cucumbers

    Culture grows well under the trees, then it will not be necessary to make it an artificial shading, and the lashes have much to curl. The only thing that needs to be done is to clear the soil of weeds, since cucumbers cannot be weaved. When pulling weeds, the roots of cucumbers are easily damaged and the plants die. In extreme cases, the weeds are cut. With the growth of borage, he himself will drown out any weeds.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    A place for cucumbers is allocated where pumpkin cultures did not grow last year, and early cabbage, onions, legumes or strawberries were grown.

    Dunnage beds for plants are prepared only in the northern regions on cold, poorly warmed soils. In all other cases, manure is brought in from the fall, closing it up to 20 cm.

    Planting dates

    On the street, cucumbers are grown by direct sowing of seeds in the ground. Seasonal cultivation is now practically not used, because a lot of attacks, and the harvest is lower.

    The determining factor for sowing is soil temperature. If it is below 17 ° C, then it is impossible to sow cucumbers, because for a crop it is cold and the seeds will die. For the speedy warming up of the earth it is covered with a film.

    Before sowing, the seeds are usually not germinated, they are only soaked for 20-30 minutes in warm water and sown immediately.

    The term of sowing in the northern regions is June 5-15, in the middle lane - the end of May, with a cold long spring - the beginning of June. In the south, seed sowing is carried out in early May.

    The seeding depth is 1.5-2 cm, the distance in the row is 25-40 cm. It depends on what cucumbers are grown. Bush plants need less space, they have a small area of ​​food, so they sow 25-30 cm. Medium-weaving weakly branching cucumbers are planted after 30 cm, strong-gliding varieties 40 cm.

    In cold weather, crops are covered with any covering material (film, lutarsil, hay).

    Care after emergence

    After the emergence of seedlings, covering material is left only in cold weather and in the case of night frosts. When frosted shoots, it is better to cover with a double layer of a thin covering material than a single layer of thick (for example, a thick film). It is very good to use hay from night frosts by milling the cucumbers. Under such a shelter, young plants can tolerate temperatures down to -6 ° C without any particular damage.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    7 days after the emergence of seedlings in cucumbers, the first true leaf appears. Subsequent leaves are formed with an interval of 5-8 days.

    After the appearance of this sheet, the main care is watering and feeding. Fertilizer consumption rate for hybrids is 4-5 times more than for bee-pollinated varieties. Feed the plants as well as in greenhouse conditions.

    At an early age, cucumber beds do not weed because of the fragility of the root system of the culture. If the plot is overgrown with weeds, and the ground is compacted, then the weeds are cut. Loosen the seedlings can be no closer than 25-30 cm from the plant. If the earth is very dense and swum, then to improve aeration, it is pierced with forks to the full depth of the teeth at a distance not closer than 20-25 cm from the plant.

    Caring for a fruiting plantation

    Cucumbers in open ground are grown either in fossil (horizontally), or tied to a trellis.

    With horizontal cultivation, care is reduced to regular watering and feeding. Cucumbers do not form, whips grow freely in all directions. One can only pinch the main stem of the bee-pollinated varieties after the 4th leaf to stimulate branching and the formation of female flowers.

    Watering is done on the area, because after the growth of plants it is impossible to find the main stem. The consumption rate of water 20-25 l / m2.

    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and

    With vertical growing plants after the 4th leaf tied to the string and sent up. From the sinuses of the lower 4 leaves remove all the shoots, buds and flowers. The remaining side lashes are allowed on the trellis. The main fruiting of cucumbers in the open field always goes on rods 3-5 orders of magnitude.

    Optimal for cucumbers are the following indicators

    Indicators Happy At night
    Clear Mainly cloudy
    Air temperature before fruiting, ° C 24-26 22-24 18-19
    Air temperature during fruiting, ° C 26-28 24-26 20-22
    Soil temperature, ° С 25-27 24-26 22-24
    Relative humidity, % 80-85 75-80 75-80
    Soil moisture,% 70-90 60-70

    If it is very hot and low humidity outside, then to raise it early in the morning cucumbers are poured with rain. Plants should be shaded a few hours after sunrise for the water to dry. Otherwise, there will be burns on the leaves, and holes will appear.

    Difficulties and problems in growing cucumbers

  • Sown seeds do not germinate. If they are viable, the lack of germination indicates that they have been sown in cold soil, and they have died. Cucumbers are sown only when the soil warms to at least 17 ° C.
  • On bee pollinating varieties a lot of barren flowers and almost no ovaries.
  • Use for sowing fresh seeds. The greatest number of female flowers in varietal cucumbers formed when they are sown 2-3 years after harvest.
  • The main stem is not pinched. It always produces male flowers. Women's appear on the lashes of the 2nd and subsequent orders.
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
  • In greenhouse cucumbers, small holes appear on the upper leaves. These are the sunburns received from the drops of the dew falling in the morning from a greenhouse roof. To prevent burns cucumbers pritenyat, and in the morning are well ventilated.
  • Zelentsy thicken near the stem, the opposite end narrows, resembling a beak. The leaves are light and small.
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    Lack of nitrogen. The culture is fed with manure (1 l / 10 l of water), grass fertilizer (1 l / 5 l of water) or nitrogen mineral fertilizers (1 tbsp / 10 l of water).
  • Zelentsy pear-shaped, and the edges of the leaves have a brown border. Lack of potassium. Top dressing with potassium fertilizer that does not contain chlorine: 3 tablespoons / 10 liters of water. You can feed the infusion of ash - 1 cup per plant.
  • Leaves spin up. Lack of phosphorus. Top dressing with superphosphate: 3 tablespoons / 10 liters of water.
  • The leaves have a marble shade - lack of magnesium. Top dressing with Kalimag. You can use dolomite flour for feeding, which contains magnesium in its composition (1 cup / 10 l).
  • The leaves are yellow-green in color - a common lack of trace elements. Top dressing by any microfertilizer.
  • Curved Zelentsy.
  • Abundant watering after a long absence of moisture in the soil. Culture needs frequent abundant watering, the soil should not dry out.
  • Sudden drops in day and night temperatures.
  • Watering with cold water.
  • Pollination of hybrids by insects. This often happens when bee-pollinated varieties and hybrids are grown together. To avoid this, the distance between these types of cucumbers must be at least 600 m. In the summer cottages where this is not possible, either varieties or hybrids must be grown.
  • Cucumbers bitter. In greens contains the element cucurbitacin. With improper care, its concentration rises sharply and the fruit is bitter. The appearance of bitterness in the fruit is always associated with situations that are stressful for cucumbers. Currently, there are varieties that do not contain cucurbitacin, which means that they will not taste bitter, even under extreme conditions of growth. The main causes of bitter greens are as follows.
  • Sharp temperature change.
  • Long cold spell. In this case, so that the greens would not be bitter, the beds, if possible, cover with a double layer of lutarsil, throwing it over the trellis.
  • Irregular watering or watering with cold water.
  • Zelentsy not grow. Growing cucumbers occurs at night, and if they do not grow, then at night they are too cold. You should cover the beds with covering material at night.
  • Absence of ovaries.
  • Sowing fresh seeds of bee pollinated varieties. On plants grown from such seeds there are almost no female flowers, but only male ones.
  • Temperature above 36 ° C. In such conditions, the plant goes into survival mode and he is not up to tying greens. When the temperature drops, fruits will appear.
  • Excess nitrogen in feedings. Cucumbers are intensively increasing the leaves and loosely tying greens. It is necessary to reduce the proportion of nitrogen and increase the dose of potassium in the feed. With a high nitrogen content, it accumulates in the greens, which is dangerous for human health.
  • The absence of insect pollinators. This often happens when planting bee-pollinated varieties in the greenhouse. To get the harvest you have to manually pollinate flowers.
  • Ovaries turn yellow and fall off.
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
    238-Care for cucumbers in the greenhouse and
  • Watering with cold water. Especially if the water from the well from deep soil horizons is immediately used for irrigation.
  • In bee-pollinated and self-pollinated plants, this happens if fertilization has not occurred. Most often this happens in greenhouses at temperatures above 36 ° C or humidity over 90%.
  • Prolonged cooling and rains also prevent pollination, because bees do not fly. In self-pollinated varieties, pollen becomes heavy in such weather and loses volatility.
  • In parthenocarpic ovaries turn yellow and fall off when the bud type of fruiting is due to lack of nutrition. In the beam grows 1-2 greens, the rest fall. In order to develop all the ovaries in the beam, it is necessary to increase the dose and the number of dressings.
  • Lower leaves turn yellow and dry. It's quite normal. In a fruiting plant, the lower leaves always turn yellow. In general, when growing cucumbers in a greenhouse or on a trellis every 10 days, it is recommended to remove 2 lower leaves to make it easier for the plant to feed the ovaries.
  • Wilting cucumbers. If this is not associated with root disease, it is a result of a prolonged drought and the lack of irrigation. It is necessary to water the plants.
  • Growing cucumbers is actually not as difficult as it seems at first glance. But they require systematic, painstaking care.

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