Poultry farming is an industry that is developing in the modern world. Thanks to the tireless work of poultry farmers today there are about 700 different breeds of chickens. Interesting is the fact that all these breeds had the same wild ancestor - the Bankivier rooster, who was domesticated many years ago. Different breeds of chickens differ primarily in productivity. They also have a different appearance and color plumage. Consider which groups are divided all breeds of chickens. Also talk about what breeds of chickens are considered the best.
Common and rare breeds of chickens
The classification is based on the orientation of certain breeds. Today there are 5 groups of birds. It:
Despite the fact that analyzing the names of groups, you can guess the characteristics of each of them, consider a brief description.
Those breeds of chickens that gain a lot of weight fall into this category. Keep these birds exclusively for meat. Scientists are working today on the breeding of new breeds of meat. At the same time, they are working not only to improve the quantitative indicators, but also to improve the taste of chicken. Also, experts are working on breeding early breeds of meat.
If we talk about the appearance of representatives of breeds of meat, then they have rather large dimensions. They have, as a rule, a somewhat loose plumage. The massive body keeps short and rather thick legs. Almost all breeds of meat-laying chickens have a calm disposition.
The most widespread meaty breeds are: the cuc de malin, arbor icres, jersey giant (jersey), the Crimean giant, arbor icres.
Egg breeds have high egg production. They have average meat productivity. In addition, the improvement of the taste of the meat of egg feathered birds does not work. The only goal is to get an egg-laying chicken. It must be said that some representatives of this category are gaining quite a lot of weight. But their fattening takes more time than the representatives of the meat category.
If we talk about the description of the appearance of egg birds, then they have light bones, thick plumage, there are earrings. The head is decorated with a comb, the legs are of medium length and placed close enough to each other. For household, feathered eggs are considered the most suitable. It is worth noting that the feathered egg orientation of restless temper. At arrangement of the open-air cage for walking you need to take care of the presence of a high fence.
The most popular breeds of egg-laying hens are: radonite, megroula, super nickname, Heinz, Aurora, Heinlein, white carapace, high-line, green-fox, shaver, Italian kuropatchataya.
Meat and Egg Hens
This group includes birds, which are called universal. These are profitable breeds for home keeping, as they have high rates of meat and egg productivity. But, these rates will never be as high as those of dairy and meat varieties. Their advantage is ease of care and maintenance. Meat and egg birds are more capricious.
As for the appearance, it is worth noting that with the introduction of these breeds, representatives of meat and egg orientation are crossed. Accordingly, they have an average physique, short legs, rather thick plumage. There is a comb and earrings. The character of meat-egg smokers is calm.
The following breeds are most common today: grise bar, redpak, neked, ameriukans (Easter chickens living near the Shandalar river), niderheiner, hardo, belfelder, sundheimer, gray berry, Ukrainian ear-flaps (distributed in Russia), and Hubbard f 15. The Dresden breed also deserves attention.
There are fighting breeds of chickens. They give birth to participate in sports. But, only cocks take part in battles, which are better suited for this purpose. On the Internet you can watch video cockfighting.
With regard to the appearance of the fighting breeds of chickens, it can be noted that they have well-developed muscles, especially in the chest. It is also worth noting that the fighting breeds have feathered legs and a small head. In the selection of birds for fights take into account the thickness of the bones, especially in the head, since most of the strokes fall on the head. You can judge the strength of the frontal bones by well pronounced superciliary arches. Even fighting cocks have a powerful beak. Earrings they are virtually absent. The body is dense, legs are set wide.
The most common fighting rocks are: Sumatra, Belgian fighting, ha dong tao (Vietnamese fighting), kulangi, azil. Belgian Warrior is very popular all over the world.
The hens are distinguished by an unusual plumage.
Decorative chickens are beautiful, but not the most productive birds. Get them to get aesthetic pleasure from the contemplation of the birds. The first began to display ornamental chickens in Asia. Later, these trends came to European countries, Russia and Ukraine.
One eye catches oneself, as a rule, with unusual plumage. This applies to both the structure and length, and the color of the pen. Beautiful birds usually do not have large body sizes. But there are exceptions to this rule. The legs may have different lengths, the muscles are poorly developed. The head of ornamental chickens is decorated with a wide comb, of different widths, or tuft. There are even rocks with a black crest (oyam cemeniya, for example). There are also beautiful double-crested chickens. Usually they have a calm disposition. Chickens of decorative breeds, especially rare, expensive. Yes, and keep them at home troublesome.
The fact that the breeds belong to the decorative group does not mean that they do not carry eggs or their meat cannot be used for cooking. But, indicators of meat and egg productivity, as a rule, are low.
Most often today you can find representatives of the following ornamental breeds of chickens: bentam (kinglet) or Japanese bentamka, sultanca, sherjet (curly chickens), Malaysian serama, paduan, sybright, gudan. Noteworthy is the Chinese downy (five-fingered chicken) and royal hen. Noteworthy Russian black bearded. This group may also include Polish curia, whose head is decorated with a tuft of impressive size. As for the rest, they do not differ from birds, not belonging to the decorative group. Also decorative include wild chickens. But to breed them at home is difficult and there is no point.
The rare and elite is the breed of grizzly. The feathers of these birds are used for the manufacture of various handicrafts, including brooches and hair ornaments. Also rare are American, Langshan, Galan. The elite breed is the Crewker breed. This meat-egg breed, characterized by precocity. Also rare is the Langshan breed. She is very whimsical in care and does not tolerate cold winters. Therefore, Russian poultry farmers do not recommend breeding this breed.
Uhyilyuy refers to unusual breeds of chickens. These birds carry eggs with green shells. Their productivity indicators are not impressive. The weight of an adult individual is, on average, 1 kg, egg production is 170 eggs per year. But attracts the attention of the color black with a golden sheen. The color of the comb and ear lobe does not differ from the color of the plumage. The price of uhyilui chickens is high.
It will take a lot of time to look at all the breeds of chickens. We consider only those that today for one reason or another are the most popular.
In the villages, white, black, red and orange chickens can most often be seen. But the poultry industry is developing rapidly. And some poultry farmers may show unusual feathery salmon or lilac color, obtained by crossing different breeds. Let us figure out which breed is suitable for the household, and which birds should be established on a chicken farm.
The Yerevan breed of chickens belongs to the meat and egg group. Armenia is the birthplace of birds. When breeding, in addition to local birds, Rhode Islands, Australorpes, and New Hampshires were used. The hybrid plumage is red-fawn. But the tips of the feathers are painted black. Therefore, they are sometimes also called the Yerevan red breed of chickens. Newborn chickens are covered with a down shade of brown color of a light shade.
Yerevan red chickens have a strong build. Their head of medium size is decorated with a comb of impressive size, there are small ear lobes. The color of the crest and the earlobes is pink. A small beak has the shape of an arc. But it is slightly curved. A distinctive feature of the exterior is a deep and wide chest, which is quite well developed. The back is wide and short, the tail is of medium size. The small wings are pressed to the body, the legs of medium length, which are located close to each other, are painted yellow.
Meat productivity of birds is 2 kg for chickens, and 3 kg for roosters. As for egg production, one hen per year brings at least 160 eggs weighing 55-60 g. Young growth begins in 5 months.
Yerevan chickens can boast of good health. The safety of the young is about 90%. In adult chickens, this figure is 4% lower.
Shabo breed chickens are beautiful dwarf birds. They were bred in Asia. A feature of the representatives of this breed is that the birds almost all the time sitting on the ground. Accordingly, they can be kept in a small room.
As for the exterior, first of all it is worth noting that the feathered very short legs with an average body length. While walking, the hull practically touches the ground. A very short back is another feature of shabo chickens. The head is decorated with a large comb of red color, ear lobes are present. The long tail is another decoration for shabo chickens.
Shabo chickens come in 3 types: regular, curly and silk (fluffy). It cannot be said that a certain type of feathering looks better than all the others. Each bird is good in its own way. What sways color, it can be very diverse. There are birds with porcelain and striped feathers. It looks interesting black and silver and black and white color. In black and white, the feathers on the tail, chest and abdomen are painted black, while the back is white. Bright red comb and earlobes harmoniously fit into this color range.
Meat productivity rarely exceeds 500 g. As for egg productivity, it rarely exceeds 70 eggs per year. At the same time, the weight of the egg is only 28 g. This indicator differs from the average weight of the chicken egg almost 2 times.
It is worth noting that the maternal instinct is well developed in chickens.
Kyrgyz gray chickens
Kyrgyz gray breed of chickens is universal. She received zootechnicians by crossing feathery egg and meat orientation. Feature of the exterior is a cone-shaped body. The chickens of the Kyrgyz gray breed have a large build. The wings of small size are tightly pressed to the body, the back is long, the belly is rounded and a small head with a red leaf-like crest.
Due to the variegated plumage of the Kyrgyz gray chickens is difficult to confuse with any other breed. In the plumage there is white and brown. The result is a “pockmarked” outfit, which makes a gray chicken look like the heroine of a “hen-ryab” fairy tale. In the plumage of cocks may also be brown.
Chickens of Kyrgyz gray breed are easy to care for and maintain. Birds adapt to almost any climatic conditions. They have a calm disposition, which simplifies the content.
Indicators of meat productivity of hens and roosters are significantly different. With proper care, roosters gain up to 3.5 kg. The weight of chickens is 1 kg less. Chickens begin to sweep at the age of six months. Egg production is 170 eggs, whose weight is 60 g. The shell of eggs is light brown.
Roosters gain weight better
It is worth noting that almost all eggs give viable chickens, and chickens are good hens. At the age of 2 months, the chicken can weigh about a kilogram. But such results can be achieved only with good nutrition.
Homeland of these birds is England. This English breed belongs to the universal group. But when breeding livestock breed, they sought not only to get a bird with high productivity, but also to improve the quality of meat and presentation of the carcass. During breeding specialists tried to ensure that representatives of the breed had white skin. White carcasses on the shelves, in their opinion, look much more attractive. Partially assigned task was completed.
The English breed Orpington does not belong to giant breeds, but is striking in its dimensions. The body has the shape of a cube. The roosters have a small head, decorated with a medium-sized comb. The neck has a graceful bend and smoothly passes into a powerful chest. Musculature is well developed on a wide and long back. Chickens look like a rooster. The only difference is in size. Layers are more elegant.
Orpington breed attracts a variety of colors. There are classic black and white hens. You can also find golden, fawn, red, marble, partridge, calico and blue birds. The last 4 colors look especially attractive.
The average weight of an adult cock is 4.5 kg. Often, roosters gain up to 5 kg of live weight. Laying eggs that carry up to 180 eggs per year weigh 3.5-4 kg. The weight of each egg laid varies between 58-62 g. Eggs are durable, brown-yellow colored eggshells.
Orpingtons have several drawbacks. They are very slowly gaining weight and have a good appetite. Therefore, it will take a lot of time and money to grow English hens.
Chickens Adler silvery breed are very popular in Russia. This chicken is popularly called silverfish. This is due to the fact that they perfectly adapt to the cold climate. It is also worth noting that birds quickly adapt to any climatic conditions. Birds belong to the combined type.
As for the exterior, the Adler hens are folded in proportion. They have an average constitution, a small tail and the same wings, a straight neck. Legs of medium length are located close to each other. On a small head are copper-colored eyes. The plumage is short and dense. Almost all bird feathers are painted white. And only at the end of the tail and neck there is a plumage of black color. Such color zootechnics called Colombian.
The main advantage of the breed, in addition to high productivity, is ripening.
The weight of an adult rooster is 4 kg. Females weigh 1.5 kg less. Egg production is 180 eggs per year. The weight of each egg is 60-65 g. When breeding, zootechnicians have achieved an increase in the period of egg production. Adler birds, with proper care, lay eggs for 4 years.
Representatives of the Adler silvery breed can be mated with other breeds. This usually gives good results. Zootechnicians also say that with a certain diet, the breed can be considered as meat.
Milfleur - a decorative breed that is popular. Beautiful feathered miniatures with plumage on their legs have a bright color. It is also worth noting that the representatives of the breed are unpretentious in the care and hardy.
The body of small size is covered with a dense and thick feather. The short and wide neck is beautifully curved, the short back comes to an end with a long tail. Medium-sized comb blends harmoniously into the overall exterior. Color can be very diverse. The most common milflera porcelain, tricolor, white and black and white colors. Blue speckled color deserves special attention. It looks spectacular and unusual. Legs are decorated with long feathers.
Not only females take care of the offspring, but also roosters. This is not typical for most breeds. Milfleur chickens are excellent hens. They sit not only on chicken, but also on quail eggs. It is also interesting to observe the relationship between the hens and roosters. The male will not allow himself to peck the food first. He will definitely give place to the lady. You can keep milflerov in a small poultry house. Dwarf breed is ideal for breeding and keeping in their own home, especially if it is not possible to equip a spacious poultry house.
Meat productivity is, on average, 0.7 kg. Egg productivity is 110 eggs, the mass of which does not exceed 0.3 kg. These characteristics are low. Accordingly, milflerov should be considered solely as a decorative breed.
In Russia, exclusively private farmers are engaged in breeding this breed. Therefore, it is quite difficult to acquire hatching eggs or chickens.
Kulangi is a fighting breed of chickens, originally from Central Asia. It cannot be said that it is the best, but it definitely belongs to the most popular in the modern world. Birds are unpretentious to the conditions of detention and food, have endurance and bad character. But for fighting hens, a bad temper is a dignity, not a disadvantage.
The main exterior characteristic of the fighting breed of chickens is an unusual rise of the body. The kulangi has a well-developed skeleton, the long back ends with a small tail. This is a tall cock. It is also worth noting that representatives of the breed have massive hips. Kulangi feathers can be colored salmon or black. Salmon birds are especially good. This species has a delicate color, which gives the bird a nobility.
In general, these birds are unpretentious. But they must be constantly in motion. Therefore, the poultry farmer should take care that the kulangi has an open-air cage for the corresponding sizes. The bird is very cocky. It is advisable to keep fighting cocks separately. If they are kept together, the fights in the poultry yard will occur all the time.
Meat productivity largely depends on nutrition and conditions of detention. The average weight of an adult cock is 5.5 kg. With good nutrition and the corresponding gene pool, the rooster gains up to 7 kg. Maximum weight of chicken - 4kg. For a year, the hen gives about 110 eggs weighing 60 g.
Eggs can be used for incubation. Of 70% of eggs, viable chicks are obtained. Reducibility reaches 85%.
These white birds are from the USA. It is distributed both abroad and in Russia. Today, poultry farmers from many countries (Japan, Germany, USA) are engaged in improving the breed. In feathered triangular body format. The orientation of the breed - the egg.
These white chickens looks compact. The round chest protrudes slightly forward, the line of the back is straight, the wings are pressed to the body. White plumage is dense, there is a mane for roosters. The paws are yellow. Chickens and roosters can boast a fairly large scallop. That's just in hens, he hangs to the side.
Despite the name of the breed, there are not only white birds. There are partridge, black and variegated, striped, red and variegated, silver and blue birds. But white color is most common.
Birds need good food
The weight of an adult rooster varies in the range of 2-2.5 kg, chicken - 1.3-1.8 kg. For the year, one laying hen gives about 250 eggs weighing 58-62 g. To achieve such egg production, it is necessary to provide good nutrition to the birds.
Noteworthy and chicken Kakhetian breed, golden gazebo, Azil, silk lavender (among poultry farmers is considered the standard of beauty), Gergebilskaya repak, oravka (mountain chicken comes from Slovakia), five-fingered chickens with a beard Faverolles Chicken, Kuchinskaya anniversary, smoky chicken legbar, feathered French Bress Gallic, Russian crested chickens, highsex white, redbro (popularly called retro). But on reviewing all the rocks will take a lot of time.
First you need to choose a breed. For a small personal subsidiary farm suitable for any birds. If the purpose of breeding - getting meat and eggs for home use, it makes sense to give preference to universal breeds. Some semi-broilers have high rates of meat and egg production. Broiler (Broller) breeds are also very popular. It is worth paying attention to fast-growing chickens, which are beneficial in households, since it takes less time and feed to feed.
If you want to decorate the farm, it makes sense to consider the catalog of breeds of chickens with photos. To buy decorative chicks in our country is difficult. Only some domestic breeders breed dwarf varieties. Ornamental chickens with average productivity are more popular among breeders. These are various tailless and black-headed breeds, bearded chickens and feathered birds with a naked neck or whiskers. It is also worth paying attention to the lochmonog birds. But remember that chicks of rare breeds are expensive.
When buying online, ask the breeder to send a video of the selected breed of chickens. The behavior of the chicks can be partially judged on their health status. In the online directory you can find many companies offering hatching eggs and chicks. Read reviews about each company, watch the video, which depicts poultry houses and aviaries for birds. Prefer proven online shopping (hills, for example). Do not be guided by such an indicator as the best price. Asking for chicks with a good gene pool will be exactly as much as it costs. And the best price is given for weak offspring. Although there are exceptions.
Give preference to feathered, adapted to Russian climatic conditions (Ukrainian Ushanka, Italian Kuropatchataya, Kuchinskaya Jubilee, English breed Orpington). Good results were achieved by American and German poultry farmers. If we talk about domestic breeds, the Vladimir poultry farmers achieved good results. Resistant to cold climates Russian Crested Chickens. They can be bred even in Siberia. It also makes sense to pay attention to the breeds that are cultivated in Belarus. There, the climate is similar to the climate of Russia.
When breeding at home, choose unpretentious in the care and food of birds. It is easier and cheaper to breed them. In addition, they must be productive. An excellent option for home breeding is the master gray (some mistakenly attribute the name Mr. Gray to them).
Before you start breeding birds, equip house and aviary. If there is not enough free space, breed small birds should be bred. Birds need not only to have, but also to provide them with proper care. Small chickens are kept separately from adults. They need to constantly look. At the slightest indisposition, you should show the little birds to the vet.
Any rural mongrel birds can be improved. To do this, use when crossing need purebred birds with a good gene pool and free of defects.
We looked at the best breeds of chickens that are popular with both farmers and amateur poultry farmers. But, choosing birds for breeding, do not forget that livestock specialists are constantly working on breeding new breeds of chickens. Therefore, one should not ignore the breeds of chickens that have appeared on the market recently and have not yet gained popularity.
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On the question of breeding what breeds of chickens is better to start practicing there is no answer. It all depends on what your goal is. Experts recommend starting poultry breeders to pay attention to domestic breeds that are adapted to the climatic conditions of Russia. If you only need layers or only roosters, then you should pay attention to autosex breeds. Their peculiarity is that already at the age of one month one can determine the sex of the chickens.
Purchase should be made on a public or private farm. When you purchase on the Internet, you will have the opportunity to get acquainted only with the photo and text description, browse the Internet catalog. In addition, there are no guarantees that you offer pedigree chickens.
And finally, I would like to say that in the legends you can find descriptions of birds that have some similarities with chickens (Ruh, Alkonost, Sirin). After reading the photos of these mythical rocks you can see the similarities with the decorative breeds of birds.