Blackberries look like raspberries not only in appearance. These plants largely coincide taste, vegetation periods and methods of agricultural engineering. In the US, it is no coincidence that this berry is grown on an industrial scale. It is an unpretentious and caring shrub. Planting blackberries and caring for her do not cause difficulties.
When planting blackberries in open ground
Blackberries do not have as high frost resistance as raspberries. Therefore, many gardeners do not run the risk of growing it on their land. But these fears are not justified. Subject to the rules of planting and care, you can get good yields of tasty and juicy berries.
Russians do not have enough experience in growing blackberries, and there is no consensus on some issues regarding this crop. This also applies to optimal landing times. As the experience of Americans shows, blackberries can be planted in spring and autumn. Exact calendar dates depend on the climatic conditions of the region.
In choosing the time for spring planting, the main reference point is weather conditions. The air temperature should correspond to 15–16 ° C, and the ground should be heated to a depth of at least 20 cm. Bushes are planted before bud break.
Optimum spring planting dates in 2018:
- in the middle lane - from April 25 to May 5;
- in the southern regions - April 5-15;
- in Siberia and the Far East - May 1–10.
Planting blackberry seedlings during this period eliminates the risk of freezing, plants take root well and take time to root thoroughly before the fall.
Autumn planting is a riskier event. It is recommended in those regions where it is relatively warm until mid-late November. The general rule for all climatic zones is this: blackberries are planted a month before the onset of the first frost. During this period, the plant will have time to recover from transplantation and take root. For the winter, he is necessarily covered.
The optimal time for autumn planting in 2018:
- in the middle lane - mid-September;
- in the southern regions - the beginning - the middle of October;
- in Siberia and the Far East - the beginning of September.
Types for growing on the site
In the wild, the blackberry is extremely unpretentious, grows well on heavy and marshy soils, it is notable for its short stature and small size of fruits. As a result of the cultivation and selection, more than 40 varieties of this plant appeared, much of which are hybrids obtained by crossing with raspberries.
There are three types of garden blackberry:
The main distinguishing feature of these plants is in particular their growth: the cumanica - a bush plant that looks like a raspberry, and the rosianica - a lianoobrazny, creeping. Transitional view combines the features of the first two.
Types of blackberry on the photo
Among the variety of varieties distinguish ordinary, beshipnye and remontant. Among the first are plants that retain the characteristics of a wild blackberry (endurance, the presence of thorns on the branches and the pubescence on the leaves).
Bespirnye varieties because they are called because their main distinguishing feature - the lack of thorns. This is a high-yielding shrubs, the most convenient for picking berries. The first non-bearing variety was brought to Russia from America in the 60s of the twentieth century. This is a variety of Tornfrey, still occupying one of the leading positions in popularity.
Repair Blackberry - the fruit of painstaking selection. These varieties are able to bear fruit twice a year. Among them there are high frost resistance, recommended for cultivation in regions with a harsh climate. Harvest time depends on the weather conditions of the growing area. The first wave of ripening corresponds to the usual varieties, the second begins from mid-July in the south and from the beginning - mid-August in the middle lane.
The best varieties of blackberry, depending on the region
Among the variety of varieties there are recommended for cultivation in different regions of the Russian Federation. These plants showed a high rate of acclimatization and stable yield.
|Siberia and the Far East||Agawam, Lawton, Erie, Taylor, Karak Black, Thornfrey, Black Satin, Oregon, Cascade Delight.|
|Ural||Loch Ness, Loch Tay, Valdo, Kiowa, Tornfrey, Black Satin.|
|Leningrad region||Thornless Evergreen, Thornfrey, Smutstem, Diamond, Loch Tay, Helen.|
|Moscow and Moscow region||Triple crown, Tornfrey, Navajo, Agaveam, Darrow, Wilson Airlie, Black Satin, Apache.|
|Kuban||Doyle, Navajo, Voshito, Lough Tey, Columbia Star, Chester, Polar, Rovada, Thorn Free, Osage.|
|Crimea||Triple Crow, Asterina, Kiowa, The Black Prince, Boysberry Thornless, Asterina, German Uncovered, Apache ZKS, Triple Crown.|
Choosing the right place for planting blackberries is the key to high yields. It is necessary to take into account everything that this shrub loves and does not love. For good development, he needs space. Blackberries, like raspberries, give long lower shoots. The root system is branched, penetrates to a depth of two meters. The size of the plot for planting is chosen based on the number of seedlings and the optimal distance between them: from 1 to 2 meters, depending on the variety (creeping or bush).
Another important parameter of choice - the degree of illumination. Blackberry prefers sunny and sheltered places.
The main requirements for the soil - moderate humidity and breathability. Bush varieties are the most fastidious to soil quality. Ferment soils, loams or sandy loams are necessary for cumanic. Rossyanik less whimsical. It bears fruit well on heavier soils, but does not tolerate long-term stagnant moisture.
If there are not enough substances in the soil for the optimal development of the plant, it will certainly affect its growth, yield and taste of the berries. Therefore, when growing garden varieties of blackberry, special attention is paid to feeding.
The choice of location depends on the correct neighborhood of cultures. Blackberry has a feature: it is a nitrogen fixer. This indicates the ability of the shrub to enrich the soil with oxygen. Therefore, the best neighbor for him is an apple tree.
It is not recommended to plant blackberries near raspberries, strawberries or strawberries. These plants have many common diseases and pests. Such a neighborhood can lead to the rapid reproduction of the most common pests of berry crops.
Tip! Blackberry prefers moderately acidic soil. If the site grows well sorrel, horsetail and moss, before planting it is necessary to liming the selected site. For this purpose dolomite flour is added at the rate of 350–500 g per 1 m2.
Landing: step by step instructions
Before planting seedlings prepare a soil mixture with dressing, which will be laid at the bottom of the pit or trench. The composition is as follows:
- 3.5 - 4 manure buckets;
- 300 g of superphosphate;
- 500 - 800 g of wood ash (you can replace 8 g of potash fertilizer without chlorine);
- 7 - 8 buckets of garden land.
The optimal blackberry planting patterns are the same as those for raspberries:
- Rows in a trench or pit with a distance between bush varieties of seedlings of 0.8 - 1 m, between creeping 1.5 - 2 m. Row spacing about 1.8 m.
- In staggered order, maintaining the same distances as for the first scheme.
If it is decided to form the crown of the shrub by means of one- or two-sided weaving, the distance between the bushes is increased to 2.5 m. Nearby, trellis consisting of three rows of wire stretched between two supports at a height of 90, 120 and 150 cm from the ground level are built.
If there are doubts about the quality of planting material, you need to remove the seedlings from the container and inspect the root system. If signs of rot, mildew or diseases are found, these parts of the plant must be removed and burned.
Before planting, the seedling root is sprinkled with wet soil or sawdust. When forced transportation wrapped with plastic film.
Blackberries are also planted with cuttings and seeds. The second method is more troublesome, optimal for nurseries. But many gardeners have long and successfully used it on their plots.
When 2 leaflets are formed on the ascended plants, they plant blackberries in open ground or greenhouse, depending on weather conditions. The distance between seedlings is 10–15 cm. Rooted plants are dug out and transplanted to a permanent place.
Green cuttings harvested from the top shoots of the current year in the beginning - middle of July. Cut so that each cutting has a leaf and 1-3 buds. Before planting prepare the ground. To do this, take the following ingredients in equal shares:
- sifted sand;
- garden land.
Planted cuttings to a depth of 3-4 cm. Covered with plastic film or put the container with planting material in the greenhouse. It is important that the air temperature does not fall below +20 ° C. Daily watered. Humidity in the room or greenhouse should be sufficiently high. After 28-30 days, the cuttings are transplanted to the bed, keeping a distance of 15–20 cm between them.
Caring for garden blackberries after planting
In order for plants to develop well, they are provided with appropriate care. For blackberry is pruning, fertilizing, watering, garter.
All varieties of blackberry need regular watering. Do not allow the soil to dry out. After planting, the seedlings are watered with the frequency that is required to maintain the soil moisture. In the rainy summer - rarely, in the dry - in 2 to 3 days, while the tree trunk is mulched.
Several times a season, the soil around the shrubs is loosened to a depth of 5 to 10 cm. Thus, they increase its breathability and provide oxygen access to the roots of plants. At the same time remove weeds. We can not allow the formation of bushes around the bushes of grass. It is fraught with the appearance of pests.
Trimming and shaping
Blackberry agrotechnics simple, in many respects similar to the care of raspberries. But it has its own characteristics. All kinds of blackberry fruit on two-year shoots. After harvesting, they must be cut with a garden pruner and burned. This procedure is called autumn pruning. It consists in cutting two-year branches under the root, removing damaged and weak ones.
Next year, the shoots will be bearing fruit. In order to stimulate their growth in the next season, in the fall they shorten all annual branches. Moreover, this procedure is different for erect and creeping varieties of blackberry. The first ones are shortened to a height of 1.6-1.8 m (tops cut off). Each bush leaves no more than 12 branches. Creeping varieties are cut shorter: up to 1.4 - 1.5 m.
An important technique of blackberry farming is pinching. It consists in regularly cutting the tops of the shoots. As soon as they grow 8 to 10 cm, they are cut. This is a great incentive for the growth of branches and increase the yield of the bush in the next season.
Rules for pinning:
- in the first year after planting, cut off all the shoots when they reach a height of 0.9 - 1.2 m;
- on the second and all subsequent tops cut off, shorten the side shoots to 40 - 50 cm.
Blackberry creeping varieties of fruits in the middle part of two-year shoots. Therefore, do not be afraid to shorten the tops as often as possible. This helps to increase the size of the berries.
Garter is not the same as forming a bush. It is only required to maintain the plant in an upright position. For this purpose, trellis is constructed and tensioned along the already existing supports.
The most successful method of growing blackberries is considered the formation of a crown. It allows you to more efficiently use the available area, gives the site well-groomed, and plants - decorative. The most often used fan formation in one or two sides. The first method is optimal for slow-growing varieties, the second - for vigorous. This applies equally to the shrub and creeping.
Fan formation is carried out in several stages:
In the spring before bud break, the following composition is prepared:
- 1.5 - 3 kg of humus or compost;
- 10 to 15 g of superphosphate;
- 4 - 5 g of potash fertilizers;
- 5 - 7 kg of garden land.
The resulting mixture is made at the rate of 1.5 - 3 kg 1 m2. The poorer the soil, the greater the amount of fertilizer required. The following similar feeding is carried out in 2 - 3 years. Between these procedures, 200 to 250 g of ammonium nitrate and 100 to 150 g of urea for every 10 m2 are applied every spring in the spring. Also, at the beginning of the vegetative season, 6–7 kg of humus or compost are introduced under each fruiting shrub.
Tip! In the care of blackberries is not recommended to use chlorine-containing fertilizers.
Pest and disease control.
Blackberries are highly resistant to many types of diseases of horticultural crops. This berry can be called the only environmentally friendly, which largely determines its healing properties. The most common cause of blackberry disease is rust.
Rust spores - sticky, dark orange colored mass covering the leaves. The fight against the disease consists in removing and burning the affected parts of the plant, treating the crown with garlic solution by spraying. Also for this purpose, Bordeaux mixture is used, which is prepared from 400 g of copper sulfate, 40 g of lime and 10 liters of water.
Of the pests most common raspberry beetle and shoot aphid. As a method of treatment and prophylaxis, spraying "Fitoverm" (2 ml per 10 liters of water) or "Kinmiks" in the same concentration is used.
Preparing for the winter
Preparing blackberries for winter is no different from a similar procedure with raspberries. Branches bend to the ground and cover them with sacking, spandbond, rags. Before that, the ground and fallen leaves are raked to the base of the bush.
Blackberries are propagated not only by seeds and green cuttings. There are other ways:
- Apical cuts. In the middle of summer, the tip of the annual runaway is bent down to the ground and instilled. After the roots appear, they are separated and transplanted to a new place.
- The division of the bush. They dig up the plant, gently divide the root ball into several parts with fingers. They are planted in a new place, observing the distance between seedlings for the variety.
- Root scions. In the spring before the buds swell at the base of the root, shoots 10–15 cm long are separated. They are kept in the “Kornevina” solution for 10–12 hours. Planted in a greenhouse or open ground.
If you follow the adopted blackberry farming practices, the yields will be stable, and the berries are tasty. In planting and caring for this shrub is nothing complicated. This garden culture can be successfully grown in any region of Russia.