Autowatering in the greenhouse: features and types
- Features and Types
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Water volume calculation
- Water supply methods
- Making your own hands
- Scheme and Markup
- Tools and accessories
Every gardener knows how important the system of high-quality irrigation for the harvest. If you do this work manually, it will take too much time and effort. In addition, it is not always possible to regularly visit crops in order to provide them with the necessary level of irrigation.
That is why, at present, automatic irrigation systems are in great popularity and demand, which can significantly reduce the amount of work in vegetable gardens.
Features and Types
Automatic irrigation systems were first developed in Israel. And this is not strange, because this country pays close attention to agriculture, and its scarce natural resources make it look for new and sophisticated land cultivation technologies. The use of such a system can significantly reduce water consumption, as well as increase the yield by almost 80%.
A distinctive feature of the auto-watering complex is that it delivers water straight to the roots, which results in a low consumption of this resource. In addition, water in this case is supplied only to the roots, which excludes the possibility of damage to the crop.
The operation of the auto-watering system in the greenhouse implies:
- Definition of clear parameters of operation of the device, which are set due to a special controller;
- Strictly follow the safety rules during the excavation process;
- Check the status of all filter elements;
- Preservation of the system for the winter;
- Check all system nodes and its performance when you first start.
The range of such systems is quite large, and it is extremely difficult for a beginner to choose the most optimal option for themselves. The most popular today is the drip irrigation system, also called point irrigation. The simplicity of the design and affordable cost allow you to use such systems in small garden beds. The essence of the work of such equipment is that water is supplied through a small hose that is connected to the tank.
One of the advantages of such a system is also the fact that the soil becomes wet so that the roots of the plants are always in a moist environment and you can not worry that they will dry out.
The second most popular type is rainwater irrigation, the essence of which is to simulate irrigation with raindrops. The strongest side of such a device is an increase in the level of humidity indoors, which is of great importance for some vegetable crops.
Subsurface watering is quite similar to the drip version, except that the hoses are underground. The main advantage of such an automatic watering system is that the soil does not get wet from above, so a hard crust does not appear.
In recent years, autonomous irrigation systems with airing have become popular and in demand, thanks to which yields can be significantly increased inside the greenhouse. Every summer resident is aware that too high temperatures have a detrimental effect on the state of the crop, so such a system will become an indispensable helper in the greenhouse.
As a source of water, not only an ordinary water supply system can be used, but also an underground well, however, the water must fully comply with the criteria set by the manufacturer of the system.
Homemade capillary systems provide micro-irrigation and are suitable for small greenhouses.
Advantages and disadvantages
Autospray system has a number of advantages, among which are the following:
- Efficiency. Manual watering is not able to evenly irrigate all the green areas, but automatic irrigation will cope with this task without problems;
- Benefit from a financial point of view. This option of irrigation involves the pump only a couple of hours a day, the minimum consumption of resources. Modern systems allow metered and evenly distribute water;
- The presence of regulatory mechanisms irrigation on all its cycles, so that every summer resident will be able to choose the best option for himself. You can control the level of water consumption, the time when watering will take place, as well as the duration of irrigation;
- Even in your absence you will not have to worry about the condition of the plants and their watering, because the programmed system will be able to cope with this on its own;
- In the presence of a large area, automatic watering is simply irreplaceable, because it is almost impossible to irrigate on your own, otherwise you will have to spend too much time on it;
- A power outage will not break the system and will not affect the operation of the software that is responsible for watering.
Innovative automatic irrigation systems are on the modern market, where every detail is fully thought out. Communications are installed underground at a depth of 35-40 cm. This is quite enough to ensure the safe use of the system. Do not worry about the fact that during the operation of the pipe or wire will be damaged. Even if you have to use a lawnmower on the site, the wires will be completely safe.
A distinctive feature of the irrigation system is that it works according to a predetermined program. Almost any system of automatic watering includes built-in hydrants that allow, if necessary, to carry out manual watering. This is relevant in cases where there is no electricity for a long time and you need to ensure that plants have access to water.
Advanced systems boast a remote control feature, using the Internet or a mobile phone. More advanced models include special sensors that, in the irrigation process, take into account wind and humidity levels. If the wind is too strong, the sensors will send a signal to the controller and the device will simply turn off. The main advantage of the sensors is that they are able to sense any temperature changes and respond promptly to them.
Comparison with manual irrigation shows that automation can reduce the level of water consumption by almost 40%. Unlike other systems, automatic irrigation has only one substantial disadvantage - the system itself is quite expensive, but it pays for itself quickly, thanks to a more rational use of water.
The scheme of each irrigation system is developed individually, since all the features of the site and other factors are taken into account.
However, the device of automatic irrigation systems is almost the same and includes the following elements:
- The control panel, where you can set the irrigation time, irrigation duration, the ability to turn off, the intensity and other parameters;
- Rain sensor and solenoid valve;
- Access valves and pipes themselves.
Watering control is carried out using a special controller, which, at a predetermined time, turns the water supply on or off. If there is no such element, then a person will follow this process.
Most gardeners prefer the device point irrigation. A distinctive feature of such a system is that water is supplied to the planting zones and is supplied in drops or in small streams. This method of irrigation is considered the best option for berries and flowers. In addition, it is excellent for installation in polycarbonate greenhouses. The main advantage of the system is that water is supplied exactly where it is needed.
The arrangement of the subsurface system is more complicated, since it involves the burying of the hose under the ground. This provides greater irrigation efficiency, but the holes often become clogged, and cleaning can be done only after digging.
Water volume calculation
Before programming the controller, it is necessary to determine how much water berry or vegetable crops should receive in the greenhouse. Only after that you can proceed to the settings of automation.
If it is a vegetable crop, then it is necessary to proceed from the calculation of 5 mm of precipitation per hour; but for berries, this indicator should be no more than 3 mm. Thus, the automatic irrigation system will have to work about 7 minutes a day to provide all the crops in the greenhouse with the right amount of water.
Water supply methods
If the auto-watering system is used in a greenhouse, then as a source it is best to use the following elements:
- General pressure tank;
- Water supply system;
- Submersible pump in a pond or well.
The water source must necessarily be equipped with filters for cleaning, otherwise the hoses will be clogged in the future and will become unsuitable for further use.
Making your own hands
If the budget does not allow you to use a ready-made automatic irrigation system, you can make it yourself with the help of plastic bottles or more advanced components.
Scheme and Markup
On the plan of the suburban area should clearly identify the places where the sprinklers will be installed. In addition, with a compass, it is necessary to delineate the radius of action of each of them. Sprinklers should be designed in such a way that their work areas overlap. Due to this, they will be able to guarantee the proper level of irrigation of the entire area. Such a scheme is considered the best solution for areas with a huge territory.
First of all, it is necessary to select sprinklers that are distinguished by the greatest range and the largest sectors of work. They are needed in order to maintain the main territory. Sprinklers can be used on narrow parts of the lawn, which have a minimum radius of action.
If there are parts of the territory where ordinary sprinklers do not reach, then drip devices can be used here. When designing the layout and markup, you need to be extremely careful. Everything should be planned in such a way that there are no places left on the territory that do not receive water. Otherwise, it is necessary to carry out watering on your own, which will negate all the advantages of the automatic irrigation system.
The most optimal is the scheme, which includes three irrigation lines: droplet and two rows of conventional irrigation.
Tools and accessories
For the manufacture of autowatering suitable conventional PVC pipes. A distinctive feature of polypropylene pipes is their durability and reliability, which makes them the best solution for creating an automatic irrigation system. If there is no plumbing system, then you can install a barrel. In addition, to create such a system, you will need timers and a controller that will allow watering without human participation.
To carry out all the work on the production and adjustment of the automatic watering system, you need to prepare a spade, a spatula, a knife, a screwdriver and other tools.
Before starting the production of such a system, it is necessary to independently determine the capacity of the water intake. In other words, it is necessary to find out how many sprinklers will be able to work parallelly, without damage to the whole system.
This factor is directly influenced by the pressure in the plumbing system and its performance, which is defined as follows:
- A hose whose length will be more than 1 meter must be connected to the water tap;
- Next, find a bucket with a capacity of 10 liters or more;
- Determine the time it takes to completely fill the bucket.
This will allow you to carry out all the necessary measurements and find out the speed of watering. Also, do not forget that each sprinkler has its own needs in the amount of water. You must first verify whether the capacity of the water intake is sufficient so that the device can fully perform the functions assigned to it.
Irrigation lines should be designed in such a way that the total water demand is not more than the capacity of the water intake system. Remember that only devices that have the same performance can be connected to the same line. If necessary, another feed line can be used for drip irrigation. This should take into account not only the level of water consumption, but also the fact that the drip line has a special control system. This is because the usual irrigation lines are activated for half an hour a day, but the drip options - for 40-50 minutes.
After you have dealt with the water supply form, proceed to the selection of a controller, thanks to which it will be possible to set the intervals of the irrigation system. Most of the controllers on the market today can operate on 220V mains. The controller is an electronic device located in the room. It is usually located in the basement, near the tap.
As another part of the system, a rain sensor can be used that turns off the watering in case it starts to rain. This sensor is directly connected to the control element and operates from a 9 V power supply.
Now it's time to lay down and control the system. After installation, without fail, it is necessary to carry out adjustments of all sprinklers. A distinctive feature of the drip line is that it does not need to be adjusted. The last step is to program the system so that each line is turned on at a pre-specified time. Now she is fully ready to work and can perform the tasks assigned to her without human intervention. During the first use, it is best to check the operation and correct functioning of all sprinklers and drip line.
Before the onset of frost, you must always drain the water from the hoses and shut it off. It is possible to purge the system with the help of compressed air, due to which it will be possible to get rid of the remaining water. In the spring, it is necessary to check the system and clean the nozzles, as well as to adjust the sectors and radii of their work.
Development and installation of the automatic watering system will bring pleasure to every summer resident. With the right approach, it will be possible to create a structure that will function correctly and will be able to provide the most appropriate watering throughout the garden. A distinctive feature of the autowatering system is that it is mounted for a long time, so you can not save money on materials and spare parts. It is better to choose the highest quality varieties that can last for many years and fully fulfill their obligations.
The most difficult in the process of self-production of the auto-watering system is the selection of the most optimal sprinklers and their proper location. The ideal option is the division into zones, where for each is selected the most appropriate method of irrigation. The most difficult is to make automatics of this kind in the greenhouse. The fact is that in this case you need to take into account a huge number of points, including the level of humidity in the room, the number of plants, the size of the greenhouse, etc.
On the modern market there is a huge amount of ready-made sets of automatic irrigation systems for crops in the greenhouse. Due to this, every summer resident will be able to choose the most optimal option for himself. Ready-made kits from Ariston, which are designed for one or more irrigation zones, are very popular today. They can be installed in small greenhouses, which include 2 or 3 beds. This system is perfect for watering any vegetables and fruits. Most models of the company differ in water consumption of 2-3 liters per hour.
Among the distinctive advantages of the products of this company:
- Ease and usability;
- Reliability and durability;
- The ability to control the level of water consumption;
- Availability of rain sensor;
- Saving water resources.
The Hunter automatic irrigation systems, which include a large assortment of various watering equipment, are very popular in the domestic market.
In particular, the company offers the following positions:
- Sprinklers - watering is carried out using ultra-advanced rotary and fan sprinklers;
- Nozzles - made exclusively from high quality plastic, therefore, are characterized by high quality and durability;
- Valves - the manufacturer has developed a variety of valves that allow you to work with different voltages.
Hunter has been specializing in the manufacture of high-end nozzles and sprinklers for many years. The products of this company are known for their impressive quality and reasonable price.
For polycarbonate greenhouses, it is best to choose rotary options that are more complex device, but they can boast a more harmonious and stable work. A distinctive feature of such systems of automatic watering from the company Hunter is that they can be adjusted to a predetermined radius of the water supply, so that you can control the resource consumption. Hunter controllers and sensors are high-class devices that can make the automatic watering system work as reliable and efficient as possible. Thanks to this, the user can set various irrigation settings, including duration, alternation, etc.
The advantage of this auto-watering system is the presence of special sensors that ensure the sensitivity of the system to external conditions and start watering when the greenhouse is too dry. It is this function that makes the system completely independent of the owner and allows it to work in automatic mode. Hunter also offers non-volatile integrated pumps that can operate in several modes. It is possible to connect the irrigation system both to the water pipe and to the barrel.
Thus, the irrigation system "automatic" greatly simplifies the process of irrigation of vegetable crops in the greenhouse. Proper configuration will completely eliminate the need to carry out manual watering or to control the self-watering system. The most important thing is to correctly install the system, providing for all the features of the greenhouse.
How to arrange automatic watering in the greenhouse with your own hands, see the following video.