The average height of an ornamental plant varies between 20-80 cm, but some species reach a meter high. Freesia is characterized by the formation of a strongly branched and bare stem part with linear foliage. On the leaves, a visible and prominent central vein is clearly visible, the length of which can be 15–20 cm with a width of one centimeter.
Each plant most often has a pair of flowers, but up to five flowers can form, combined into a weak one-sided branched inflorescence. Flowers are characterized by a pronounced aroma, are narrowly funnel-shaped. Coloring the petals, depending on the characteristics of the variety and type, can be almost anything. The most common color is whitish, cream, yellow, yellow-orange, pink, pinkish red, lilac or blue, and purple. As a rule, flowers have a pharynx of contrasting basic staining. The ovary is three-capped. The small-sized seed box has an obovate shape and serves as protection for the numerous, dark-brown, angular-rounded seeds.
Highly decorative and relatively unpretentious varieties that can be grown year-round have gained particular popularity in our country, and the flowering time may depend on the timing of planting the bulbs in a flower garden or flower pot.
|View||Characteristic view||Variety or hybrid form||Variety description|
|Armstrong (Freesia armstrongii)||Srednerosly view with scarlet, pink or red flowers bell-shaped, collected in inflorescences-panicles. Xiphoid foliage, long. Flowering in May-June||"Cardinal"||Non-terry, medium-growth variety with three flower stalks of one bulb and ten dark red, very attractive flowers|
|Hybrid (Freesia hybrida)||Tall and strongly branched plant with racemes consisting of large and fragrant, purple, raspberry, yellow, monochromatic or two-colored flowers||"Ballerina"||Belotsvetkovy grade with corrugated petals. A dozen flowers collected in inflorescences, publishing a gentle and light, pleasant aroma|
|Rose Marie||In the inflorescence is going about seven flowers of bright crimson color. The bottom of the flowers is white with crimson pattern.|
|"Pimperina"||On low peduncles inflorescences are located of seven flowers with corrugated, red petals, having a dark red border|
|White, or refracted, or cracked (Freesia refracta)||It is characterized by a miniature form, a thin stem part, paniculate spikelike inflorescences, collected from white or yellowish-orange flowers.||Alba||Possesses white large flowers with violet shading.|
|"Scented"||Yellow flowers, collected in inflorescences, with the characteristic aroma of lily of the valley|
In flower and garden stores, as well as flower nurseries, not only popular, popular varieties and hybrid forms of freesia are realized, but also ready-made varietal mixes called “freesia mix”, which makes it possible to plant and quite easily grow an entire highly decorative collection of freesias differing in shapes size and color.
How to prepare the freesia bulbs for planting (video)
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Planting and care technology
Planting freesia carried out according to the technology of cultivation of decorative crops. Plant bulbs should be planted after preliminary preparation, which implies a two-hour soaking in a weak solution based on potassium permanganate. If the planting material is of high quality and will be provided with the correct conditions for planting, then it will be possible to get a highly decorative and abundantly flourishing planting.
Freesia can be planted in flower pots in the period from April to July. In this case, flowering occurs in summer and autumn. In the implementation of the autumn planting, flowering is observed in the period from January to April. The flower pot must have quality drainage holes.
Allowed to grow in one flower pot several bulbs at once, placing them with a sharp end. Planting material should be buried about 5-6 cm into the soil, represented by the prepared nutrient soil mixture. If the diameter of the flower pot is about 15-17 cm, then it can grow a mixture of freesia-mix, consisting of five to six onions.
In the garden and greenhouse
Thermal preparation of freesia bulbs should be carried out in conditions of high humidity and high temperature conditions. Storage is carried out at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, so this preplant treatment by temperature differences contributes to the stimulation of growth processes. For prophylactic purposes, treatment with a solution based on phytosporin or foundationol for thirty minutes is used.
When planting garden forms is required to calculate the depth of planting, depending on the condition and type of soil. On lighter soils, the landing should be deeper. On light soil, bulbs need to be buried by about 11-12 cm. On medium soils, the burial is carried out by 8-10 cm. When planted in heavy soil, the bulbs can be buried by no more than 5-6 cm.
Freesia prefer rich soil, based on compost with a small amount of sand for better drainage. It is important to note that in areas with cold climatic conditions, freesia horticultural forms are grown in open ground conditions with the obligatory digging of bulbs for the winter period. Hybrid freesia grown with pot culture and also brought before the winter in the room.
Flower care rules
Caring for this decorative crop is easy enough even for beginning flower growers. It is required to care for a plant according to the established technology of cultivation of a freesia:
- in winter, the light should be reduced, which is due to the plants at the stage of natural rest;
- in summertime, the culture needs twelve hours of daylight, which will allow to get abundant and long flowering;
- It is important to remember that adult plants are required to provide support, which freesia especially needs during the flowering stage;
- systematic and moderate irrigation measures are carried out only after the topsoil dries out;
- For irrigation, it is recommended to use separated and warm enough water without increased hardness and excessive chlorine content;
- when growing freesia, the plant is required to provide increased indicators of air humidity, using fairly frequent spraying;
- the best is the winter placement of the plant in a cool place, which can be used as a glazed loggia or a rather warm balcony;
- Mineral dressing should be done until the foliage dries out, with regularity twice a month.
After flowering, pruning of the stem and foliage is carried out. An onion left for ripening should be watered for one and a half months, after which it digs, undergoes decontamination and drying and then stored until it is planted in a cool place.
How to land freesia in open ground (video)
Independent reproduction of the ornamental culture is carried out by seed material or daughter bulbs. Seed propagation is carried out according to the following technology:
- Sowing seeds pretreated in potassium permanganate solution should be carried out from April to May in special planting tanks filled with soil substrate or mixture based on turf and leaf soil;
- with the most favorable conditions, the first shoots appear about a month after sowing;
- in order for young plants to get stronger, it is necessary to provide high quality lighting, regular watering, weeding and fertilizing with fertilizers with a composition including potassium and phosphorus three times a month at the initial stage of development;
To dive the seedling material to a permanent place is necessary after the plants reach a standard height and form a strong root system.
Reproduction of freesia daughters bulbs is the most convenient and easy way. Klubnedetki can be completely seamlessly stored together with adult bulbs in boxes with sand until March, after which the planting material is planted in a permanent place in April or May. Emerging seedlings require frequent hilling and watering.
Diseases and pests
In garden conditions, freesia are often affected by aphids, spider mites and thrips, upon detection of which both folk remedies and modern insecticides are used. Freesia can also be affected by fusarium, various rot and scab.
At the first signs of damage by rot or fusarium, the plant is treated with fungicides. Viral diseases are practically incurable, therefore, it is recommended to destroy the affected plant. To reduce the risk of damage to the ornamental culture by pathogenic microflora and plant parasites, it is possible to comply with agricultural practices.
Freesia is a real decoration of almost any flower composition, and in modern floristics this ornamental plant is considered to be a real aristocrat, highly valued for its graceful forms and delicate, very pleasant aroma. No less popular is the decorative culture in terms of landscape design, where in recent years it has been used more and more often.
In modern floristics, a freesia hybrid is widely used, featuring a wide variety of petal shades and coloring inflorescences. Freesia is an excellent option for decoration of wedding bouquets. This popular decorative look not only possesses a strong tsvetonos and decorative foliage, but also flowers perfectly remain about two weeks. Freesia successfully combined with orchids, callas and roses. Among other things, a huge color and varietal assortment of decorative freesia is available regardless of the season.
Freesia is often used in landscape design to design mixborders and as an addition to aromatic and spicy plants that can be represented by Chistave, thyme, lavender or rosemary. Growing curtains from freesia in areas devoid of the negative effects of drafts and gusting wind is very popular in the design of lawns. Among other things, decorative culture has established itself well when grown in flowerpots and decorated patios, and in recent years, freesia is increasingly used to decorate stony gardens and rock gardens.
Types and varieties of freesia (video)
The main reasons for the popularity and demand for freesia are the availability of planting material, relative simplicity, excellent external ornamental plants, as well as a steady and very pleasant aroma. The culture is perfect for both indoor floriculture and gardening of household plots, as well as creating thematic decorative compositions.