Kitchen table height: standards and regulations
Creating furniture that is comfortable for a person has always been the main task of manufacturers. But, if in ancient times the master was guided by experience and intuition, in the XX century, science - ergonomics was already working on achieving comfort. Since the 40s, on the basis of average values of population growth, the sizes of apartments were calculated, the optimal dimensions of its furnishings, the organization of the room space was decided. All these data allowed each country to introduce its own standards for dining tables and chairs.
The height of the furniture is adjusted from time to time. The inhabitants of the Earth are growing steadily, only over the past century, the Europeans have stretched 10-12 cm. During the last anthropometric measurements that occur every 15 years, it turned out that the population of the planet has grown a little more.
One of the first, in 2010, the Swiss brand Vitra reacted to the data of anthropologists, deciding to “republish” the legendary 1956 Eames Lounge Chair. To bring it in line with modern indicators of human growth, the height of the seat was raised a few centimeters. Last year, Danish brand Carl Hansen followed suit. Søn, releasing the 1950 remake for sale - a CH22 dining chair.
At the working surface of the headset, which today replaces the kitchen table, most often there is a woman. Therefore, the level of the lower tier is calculated based on the average growth of the housewives.
Wrong selection of furniture is guaranteed to provide discomfort and even causes serious ailments. Excessive inclination of the body above the table top from 20% can lead to an overload of the intervertebral discs, pain in the neck and lower back. Due to the imperfection of the kitchen, according to the statistics of the 90s, about a third of the German women had severe back pain, and it was only a few centimeters.
Serious studies of kitchen space were carried out in the USSR at the peak of housing more than 30 years ago. Then the Institute of Technical Aesthetics (VNIITE) determined the typical body positions at the kitchen table and set the most comfortable values. The position of hands, eyes, neck, knees was taken into account - only 21 parameters. GOST has fixed the permissible functional level of the comfort line (cm):
- for kneading and rolling dough - from 70 to 82
- for the primary processing of products - from 82 to 87
- for washing dishes - from 85 to 95
- for small appliances, drying dishes, pots - from 85 to 87
- heat treatment, hotplate surface - from 80 to 85
In Europe, too, conducted similar studies. In 1991, the Institute of Industrial Engineering of Darmstadt was in charge of ergonomic cuisine commissioned by the German Furniture Association. Scientists departed from the Soviet system of fixed heights, and took as a basis the interconnection of the position of the body, hands and working surface. The result was three indicators of a comfortable position, enshrined in the regulations:
- kitchen table 10-15 cm below the height of the elbow;
- kitchen table 20 cm below the elbow when the body is inclined by 20%;
- kitchen table 5 cm below the elbow, arms up to the shoulder 70 degrees.
To provide ideal conditions even with the help of science, no one has yet succeeded fully. But it was thanks to the scientific research of the Germans in modern kitchens that an island appeared, because it is designed above the lower cabinets. Soviet scientists were able to determine the step of changing the height of the furniture, at which you can create a comfortable environment for 90% of all consumers. Developed a standard height of the working plane for standing. Acute back problems for women are a thing of the past.
For height from 165 to 170 cm
- Russian standard height of the kitchen table - 85 cm,
- European standard height of the kitchen table - 90 cm (recently introduced in the Russian GOST).
There are Italian, American, Asian standards. This does not mean that the height of furniture in each country is always the same. There are at least 6 typical levels of height with a step change of 5 cm from the average. In large stores, which presents domestic and imported furniture, the height of the kitchen work surface can vary from 60 to 95 cm.
And yet, ergonomic recommendations are not in vain, and manufacturers are closely approaching to 100% implementation of the recommendations of scientists. Nowadays, only some well-known brands use them.
Instead of 6 MIELE offer 18 different levels, ranging from 48 cm - for children or sitting up to 128 - for the bar. And in order to perfectly adjust the work surface to the comfort line, the base panel in the headsets can be further adjusted in height.
LEICHT for the same purpose built into the tabletop an automatic lifting half-column, which is started by the movement of the knee. A convenient device for "high" work is mounted at the edge of the base or island.
But such solutions are possible only for large rooms, and the price for “heaped” models is not always available for the mass consumer. Sometimes it is more economical to choose a usual cutting board in thickness.
Ergonomics provides for the standard minimum width of the working surface of the tabletop - 60 cm. Today, the only exception is the working surfaces of headsets without embedded equipment, they may be a bit narrower, but more comfortable for more spacious ones from 75 - with an average height up to 90 - for tall people.
Comfortable height of the dining table depends on the level of the chair and the parameters of the person. For people of average height 165 cm and complexion, by the standards of GOST, the dimensions (cm) are set:
- the distance from the floor to the base of the table top (underframe) - 61
- the distance from the floor to the upper edge of the table top is 72-78
- from floor to seat - 40-45 (ideally - no more than 42)
- to the back of the floor - 90
- from floor to seat - 42-48
with a higher height, leg support is provided (distance from the support to the seat - 32-42 cm).
In dining sets that are available in a set with chairs, the distance between the upper edge of the table and the seat of a chair or stool is 29-31 cm, between the bottom of the tabletop base and the seat of a chair or stool is not less than 19.
Folded tables allow deviation from these values. Norm - 19 cm + thickness of the table cover.
There are ergonomic rules of freedom of action and movement, with the minimum allowable values for the kitchen (cm):
- place for 1 person at the table - 60 (optimally 70)
- table for two at the wall - 60x80 (length and width)
- table for three - 100x60
- table for four - 110x70
- free to move the chair - 75
- on the interval serving dishes to the table - 110-120
- furniture gaps - 70 (optimally 85)
How to determine the ideal height
Choosing a table set is necessary, given the growth of all adult family members. For this you need to make simple calculations (cm):
- Find the average growth of households. For example, take a young couple - a man 180 and a woman 170.
(180 + 170): 2 = 175
- The average height is multiplied by the height of the standard table and divided by the standard person height.
(175 x 78): 165 = 82.7 - an ideal table for a family.
For comparison, in public canteens and snack bars the standard height is 65 cm.
The comfortable height of the kitchen chair is calculated as follows:
from the height of the ideal table is subtracted (cm)
- with high growth - 45
- with an average of 42
- with a small - 40
In our variant we get 82.7 - 45 = 37.7
Of course, with such accuracy, the table and chairs can be made only to order. In factory production, as a rule, there will be a choice between models of standard sizes: 80 or 85 cm. From this height, the actual seat height of the dining chairs will be calculated, if they are not included in the package.
The choice of the height of the furniture for the bar in the house is determined by where it will be located and what functions will be assigned to it.
According to the designers' advice, the comfort level of the bar counter in the kitchen zone should be (cm):
- level with table top - 90
- according to the standards of the kitchen table - from 70 to 95 (up to 85 only on order)
- in the recreation area:
- in the kitchen and dining area from 120 and above (depending on the area of the room and the height of the ceilings);
- freestanding and in the living area from 70 to 135 (in stores - from 60 to 160 cm).
The height of industrial racks today is usually (cm):
- in the recreation area - 110/115/120/125/130;
- part of the kitchen set - 86/88/90 (taking into account the basement, the thickness of the table top and the height of the facade).
The space behind the counter for one person is provided - at least 60 cm;
width - not less than 30 cm (optimally 50-60). For larger rooms may increase the parameters.
According to GOST height of professional bar tables (cm):
- in public institutions - 110-130 (classic from 110-115 for height 165 cm);
- buffet tables - 100-105;
- cafeteria table - 106.7
Choosing bar stools, guided by the height of the rack. As in the case of the dining table, the difference in height between the table top and the seat is from 25 to 30 cm. Violation of the ratio will cause discomfort and even back pain. For example, if the planes of the bar table and the tabletop coincide - 90 cm, the level of bar stools is 63-65 cm.
Bar stools should be equipped with a foot rest with a seat distance of 45 cm. An exception are the chairs for the lowest rack models - up to 85.
Standard width for bar stools - 46 cm,
depth - 32-38
depth - 30-36.
The lower the chair, the wider and deeper the seat.
Manufacturers adapt to the ergonomic demands of the mass consumer in different ways, not forgetting about the interior design. A wide variety of trasformer models from the simplest ones with manual adjustment to automatic ones with several tabletops of different heights appeared on the market.
In early 2017, the Danish Skovby Møbelfabri presented the innovative SM30 wooden dining table, which changes the height itself, after pressing a button.
The German Sachsenküchen went ahead and fully equipped the kitchen with automatic height adjustments: the island is modified, the dining table turns into a bar table, and after it the stools are “growing up”.
Conventional height adjusters today are installed on household appliances, and on cabinet furniture, and dining sets. Chairs and chairs are widespread, in which the height of the legs is changed using a gas lift system.
But such decisions are not always combined with classic styles. For them, as for many centuries, there is one regulator - a special pillow, only the filler is now another. But the overwhelming majority of local manufacturers who are in direct contact with the buyer, perform interesting models of furniture to fit the size of each individual family.