How to choose a refrigerator
The refrigerator is an essential attribute of a modern kitchen. It is needed to store ready food and supplies for a few days or weeks. In view of this, the choice of home appliances requires a serious hike. Most people pay attention mainly to the aesthetics and volume of the refrigerator, but there are many other criteria and features that are worth knowing.
Many centuries ago, a man noticed that in cold weather food does not spoil so quickly. In this regard, people dug extensive holes in which they placed ice. This technique was needed in order to preserve food during the summer. In ancient Persia, such a giant cellar was called “Yaksal” and the ice layer in it reached two meters. And in ancient Rome, a different method was invented: they took out the bones from the peaches and inserted ice cubes instead.
The Chinese people came out of the situation even more interesting - fruit and sugar mixed with ice. Similar methods were used in ancient Greece. But all these techniques were determined by external conditions and were very time consuming.
Now it is difficult to say with certainty who invented the world's first refrigerator. The role of the inventor can claim several people. The term "fridge" came into use in 1800. This title was given to his invention by Thomas Moore. The design was a metal box laden with ice and lined with rabbit skins. Later, in 1805, Oliver Evans from America built a refrigeration machine, the principle of which was based on the compression of steam.
However, the unit has not been tested in practice. The year 1834 was marked by the fact that Jacob Perkins picked up the baton from Oliver Evans and, on the basis of his refrigerating machine, made his own version of the refrigerator, having received a patent for it. The next attempt was made by a doctor from America, John Gorrie., he came up with a refrigerator based compressor. Nevertheless, all inventions were heavy, expensive and unhealthy and could not adequately fulfill their mission, they still used ice in their everyday life. Many years later, in 1873, Karl von Linde made an affordable device, but it remained bulky.
And only in the 1926th year, Christian Steenstrup revealed to the world the first chamber refrigerator acceptable for home, silent and safe. The compressor and the electric motor of this device were under the hood. The design of the unit has been patented by the company. General Electric.
It is customary to distinguish several categories of these household appliances:
- With freezer;
- Refrigerated cabinets;
- Wine cabinets. As a rule, for the house it is a luxury item, design development.
- Ice machines. It is an ice machine.
According to the cooling system:
The most common model. There are devices with one, two, rarely three compressors. The more compressors in the refrigerator, the higher its cost. The main advantage of a two-compressor device is that it is possible to regulate the temperature in each compartment more precisely, to individually defrost each chamber.
- Portable thermoelectric.
Helps to store food chilled when you go on a trip or on a picnic.
There are two types of such devices:
- Refrigerator bag.
- For auto.
- Stand alone.
This type of refrigerator ideally decorates the kitchen, decorated in the style of "high-tech", the panel color of silver wonderfully harmonizes with the decoration of metal and glass.
Today is very popular. The built-in model fits well into any situation, creates comfort, invisible and silent. Among the shortcomings can be noted the high price.
- Horizontal relevant for a small kitchen in the "Khrushchev", built into the headset.
- R2D2 Refrigerator - unit, resembling the appearance of the robot R2D2, one of the heroes of the movie "Star Wars".
- Egg shaped device - an invention of enormous size, located in one of the offices of Google.
- Miniature for one can of beer - perfectly complements the desktop in the office, can accommodate a can of beer or sparkling water.
- Flatshare Such a model is a constructor. Each member of your family can collect a separate shelf in the fridge.
- Biogel. The inventor from Russia, Yuri Dmitriev, replaced the familiar household unit with a device in which the food is cooled by a colorless and odorless biopolymer gel.
- Musical. The refrigerator, called "Cooltone". Its main purpose is cooling canned food and drinks. The highlight of the design lies in the fashionable, unusual design. Built-in MP3 and CD players, as well as an FM / AM radio player and an iPod stand provide a unique opportunity to enjoy drinks and listen to your favorite music.
- "Amana Jot-Erase". Maytag made the device "Amana Jot Dry-Erase". The coating of this refrigerator can play the role of a whiteboard for drawing with a felt-tip pen. Children's drawings are easily erased with a napkin.
- In the form of a panda. This variety was developed by the Chinese manufacturer Kelon specifically for the Wildlife Fund. In the manufacturing process safe environmental technologies were applied.
- For cakes. Shops are equipped with similar display equipment. The range of such refrigerators is wide: from vertical cabinets of modest size to large horizontal display cases. Each type has a transparent door and many shelves, the gap between which can be changed. The units differ in location (desktop or floor) and the trade option for which they are purchased (the model can be closed or open). Most often in such constructions the positive temperature is maintained, it ranges from zero to 12 degrees.
When buying a vehicle, you need to pay attention to a few points:
- It should look harmonious in the interior;
- It is faithful to serve even in extreme conditions (scorching heat);
- Have a built-in humidifier;
- Have automatic control.
The dimensions of the refrigerator determine its capacity and efficiency. The size of the technique is chosen depending on the financial possibilities, the size of the room and the number of users.
There are several types of household appliances:
The depth of this embedded "baby" is only 40 cm, and the width of 45 cm is very rare. It is indispensable in a situation when, at the end of the repair, a small niche appears in the wall. Such equipment does not have a large capacity and does not have a freezer. However, as can be judged by customer reviews, the fridge amazingly fits into the situation.
- Medium low.
Its height, as a rule, is 130-150 cm., Width is 50-60 cm.
- Medium high.
The height of such a refrigerator is 150-180 cm, width is from 50 to 60 cm.
Roomy and slim unit, has two doors. The freezer is big, placed below. The height of such a device is 170-205 cm, width varies from 55 to 65 cm.
- American type.
The so-called scheme "Side-by-side"according to which the freezing and refrigerating departments are located side by side throughout the entire height of the refrigerator. The standard unit width is 90 cm (maximum up to 120), height is 170-190 cm, depth is from 60 to 80 cm.
This type is deeper and wider than the others, but its height does not exceed 180 cm. The freezing compartment is small and located on top, the width varies from 55 to 80 cm.
There are many types of modern refrigerators:
- Without freezer;
- With one camera. They have only one compartment, in which the temperature can be medium (cold store) or low (freezer). A characteristic external feature of the unit is that it is single-door. The main drawback of the model is that the walls of the freezer are covered with a layer of ice, which must be defrosted from time to time;
This type is most in demand. Two-door devices imply individual access to the freezer and refrigeration chambers.
Such a three-door version, in addition to the freezer and the refrigeration compartment, has a “freshness zone,” where products with a small shelf life are stored at a temperature of zero.
A four-door device with so many cameras is rarely purchased.
Such a variety can be seen in a series of "Side-by-Side" models. The feature of the equipment can be a built-in bar, as well as two zones of freshness - wet and dry or hinged doors.
Multiple unit with five compartments suitable for those who like to make large stocks of products.
Often has a professional application.
Among the parameters of technology manufacturers often indicate the volume of the refrigerator, which we can use, the so-called usable volume.
Single-chamber equipment is equipped with a camera capacity from 100 to 270 liters. Two-chamber options have a chamber volume of 250 to 420 liters. The volume of multi-chamber equipment can vary from 450 to 600 liters. It should be noted that the freezer can have a volume of from 50 to 200 liters.
To make the right choice, it is enough to know that for a small family (two people) a unit of 180 liters is quite acceptable. For three users, a model of 250 liters is suitable. In case the family consists of 5-6 members, it is worth considering a 350 liters device.
Types of defrosting and freezing
There are three types of frost:
- Thermoelectric (almost no noise);
- Absorption (with a little noise);
- Through compressors (very noisy);
With regard to defrosting, you can also note several varieties:
- Manual (pull the equipment out of the socket and wait for the ice to melt);
- Drip (drops of water flow into the container along the wall of the refrigerator);
- Semi automatic (activate the defrost button);
- Automatic (system "No Frost"). Perfect for those who rarely defrost the device.
This parameter makes it clear what temperature should be maintained in the room where the unit is located. In case of non-compliance with the requirements, the products will be stored poorly or the device will break. There are four climate classes:
- Class N (normal).
This includes refrigerators, which must be operated at a temperature of 16 to 32 degrees. In our country, they are very popular.
- SN class (subnormal).
Suitable for use at a temperature of 10-32 degrees.
- ST class (subtropics).
It is worth choosing if the terrain is characterized by high humidity, and the temperature varies from 18 to 38 degrees.
- Class T (tropics).
Relevant for hot areas, where the air temperature is 18-43 degrees.
Each refrigerator in the store is labeled with an energy class. It is marked in Latin letters from "A" before "G" and color. Letter "A" - the highest level of efficiency, "G " - the lowest.
There are separate devices in which documents it appears "A +", "A ++" or "A +++." These are even more economical options than the class. "A", new generation technology. The letter can stand on a strip, the color of which varies from green to red.
The colder the shade, the more profitable. The highest energy efficiency class is marked in dark green.
Most devices operate through a special motor - the compressor. Depending on the number of such motors, refrigerators are divided into several types:
- Single compressor. His work covers both the refrigerated compartment and the freezer. Can be purchased at an affordable price.
- Two-compressor. It is possible to separately turn on and off each camera, control the temperature. They are characterized by a long service life, but their cost is high.
- If we consider such a device as cooler bag, There, a cold accumulator is used as a compressor. It is a gel, placed in a special shell.
The cooler bag is cooled in the freezer to the required temperature, which gives it the ability to absorb heat for a long time.
For comfortable use, many models of modern refrigerators are equipped with additional features. These options include:
- Antibacterial coating. It is a layer of silver ions, which prevents the growth of bacteria and the occurrence of an unpleasant odor.
- Built-in TV. Actual for large devices, the screen size is not more than 15 inches.
- Protection from children. Lock the control panel or door.
- "Left loop". The ability to move the door to the other side is provided for left-handers.
- Built-in clock.
- Mode "Vacation" ("Vacation"). It makes it possible to economically spend electricity, keeping the temperature inside the device at +15 C. This mode can be set by going on a trip.
- Mode "Cool" (Cooling). Automatically turns on when the door of the refrigerator compartment often opens and allows you to continuously maintain the required temperature.
- Noise isolation.
- The door opener, when the door is open or not closed tightly, the light or sound indicator is activated.
- Power off signal.
- If the temperature inside the unit is too high.
- "Frost Free". It is a partial execution of the "No Frost" system, that is, it functions only in the freezer, and drip defrost is in effect in the refrigerator compartment.
- Surface "Anti-Finger-Print". The covering from stainless steel, preserves the panel from pollution and fingerprints.
- "Vitamin plus". There is a container with ascorbic acid, which distributes vitamin C throughout the device.
- Autonomous cold storage. In the case when the electricity was turned off, the temperature is maintained from -18 to +8 C. for 30 hours.
- Display. A built-in door screen provides information on products, temperature and important dates.
Care and maintenance
After purchasing the device, you must install it correctly. Here are a few rules:
- The rays of the sun should not fall on it.
- Eliminate the presence of a sink, heater, battery, stove near the refrigerator (acceptable distance to them is at least 50 cm)
- If the floor is insulated, select the area without heating.
- Leave free space around the unit - at least 5 cm.
- The door of the device should walk freely, without touching the wall.
- It is reasonable to leave the top of the unit free.
Do not load it with heavy objects, for example, a microwave oven.
It is better to switch on the device only two hours after installation. If you plan to use an extension cord to which several devices will be connected in addition to the refrigerator, then it is advisable to buy a surge protector in order to save wiring from the excess power of the attached devices. In order to protect against voltage surges, you can install a special stabilizer that can constantly bring the voltage to around 220 volts.
In order to ensure smooth operation of the refrigerator, quench the vibration and avoid excessive noise, smooth out uneven floor, it is useful to lay an anti-vibration mat under it. This mat is durable and hypoallergenic, serves for many years.
The documents of the equipment clearly spelled out how much food can be placed inside the device. Exceeding these numbers is not worth it, it is fraught with the fact that the temperature in the lower section will rise and the food will deteriorate.
Storage conditions provisions
Smoked products, pickles and ready-made food should be stored only in tightly sealed containers, fruits and vegetables should be packed. Do not put hot or warm food, they should cool to room temperature.
In the absence of the system "No Frost" To rationally defrost the equipment twice a month, it is impossible to accelerate the process by cleaving ice with a knife, it is better to place a basin with hot water inside. System availability "No Frost" allows defrosting only once every six months. To increase the ice layer more slowly, process the walls of the freezer with glycerin.
Caring for the appliance provides for regular cleaning of internal and external surfaces. The inside of the unit is perfectly cleaned with a solution of baking soda (one tablespoon of soda per liter of water). In addition, this method eliminates unpleasant odors. It is necessary to ensure that moisture does not get into the temperature sensor and lighting system. It is advisable to wash the rubber door seals and outer panels with warm water.
When finished, rinse the machine, wipe with a soft cloth and air for half an hour.
In addition to the above process, it is advisable to vacuum the rear wall of the structure annually, this will not only prolong the service life of the device, but also reduce electricity costs.
In the interior of the kitchen
The well-located refrigerator creates in the interior a unique home comfort. The choice of location depends on the dimensions of the room, in addition, it is reasonable to set the device so that it is convenient to cook.
There are many accommodation options that are worth considering.
- Installation in a niche. Practical and comfortable. In this position, the unit is somewhat protected from damage, sun and dirt. If there is no niche, you can build it yourself.
- On the adjacent loggia to the kitchen. This method is time consuming and rarely used.
- In the corner. A popular accommodation option, you can install a stand-alone appliance at the window or in the eating area.
- At the entrance to the kitchen. If you add light furniture to the kitchen interior and add decoration, the room will be visually more spacious. Another interesting solution is a bright color fridge with an original design. In addition, you can purchase a stainless steel refrigerator and combine it with appliances from the same material.
- Embedding in countertop. Good idea for a little construction.
- Embedding in the closet. Another advantageous solution is to hide the overall device in the kitchen behind the furniture facade. In this position, the device looks like a cabinet with one door and is invisible against the background of the headset.
- Location in the hallway or in the hallway. It is desirable that the design of the unit in harmony with the environment.
The overwhelming majority of customers choose metallic or white.
However, the modern color palette is very rich and even includes red (interesting design of such a device antique, vintage style), pink, burgundy and black tones.
If the kitchen floor and worktop chocolate color, then an excellent addition to them will be an aggregate of ivory shade (a kind of beige).
Decor made by professionals, for example, airbrushing (the art of drawing a picture with a dye) is expensive, so it is often better to do it yourself. For example, you can decorate the door of the device with magnets or stick posters, wallpapers, stickers with the image of nature, flowers, animals, cartoon characters. If you want to drastically change the color, turning the beige machine into black, vinyl film or special paint will help.
In addition, you can make or buy stencils and fill patterns or drawings. If you draw well, you can decorate the surface with a painting.
Another great solution is decoupage, for each style of the refrigerator a pattern is selected:
- Provence style. Flowers, angels and lambs will wonderfully fit, excellent furniture for kitchen in the Italian manner.
- Ethno-style. African or Russian folk motifs will do.
- Empire It is worthwhile to dwell on intricate silver or golden ornaments.
Browse popular models
Often, products that are of good quality are produced by the most popular manufacturers, since they already have considerable experience. Even in the case when production is launched not in the homeland of the brand, the manufacturing technology does not change, and this is important.
The most famous today are Japanese, Dutch, Italian, German, Turkish, Swedish, Finnish, American, Czech, Korean, Polish, Russian models. Comparison of models will help you choose the most suitable option.
- Japanese According to customers, these are high-quality and efficient units. Considerable demand is used equipment companies Sharp, Supra, Hitachi and Panasonic.
These units are characterized by large capacity, powerful antibacterial protection, the presence of the system "No frost", there is a mode of high-speed cooling and freezing.
- Korean The brand has been the market leader for many years.s Samsung and LG. The models are equipped with a child lock, the dairy department is sealed, there is a beep of the door open. Separate versions are issued with absolutely flat door.
- German. Machinery from Germany is represented by such manufacturers as Bosch, Korting, Volle, Gaggenau, Bomann. Among the advantages of German refrigerators - excellent quality and a huge selection of design design. The disadvantage is quite high cost. However, among the models of the brand Korting, there are very compact options at an affordable price.
- Finnish. Firm Helkama from Finland manufactures products for stores and for the home. Devices can be purchased at a low price, but the choice is small.
- Turkish. Brand units Sinbo small and inexpensive. Customer feedback on quality is inconsistent.
- Dutch Familiar to all the company Philips offers a wide range of models with original design, system "No Frost" or drip, economical and reliable.
- Russian. Among domestic producers can be identified Polair, Premier, Bork, trademark "Ocean". Polair and Premier are reputable companies that produce equipment for catering places. Reliable technology, adapted even to extreme conditions. "Ocean" - brand created by the Ussuriysk plant, the choice of units under this brand is small, only four models, but they all have a system "No frost". Bork - a very well-known brand of premium equipment, customer reviews about the products of this company are contradictory.
- American Pay attention to the design of the company Sub-zero, model with hinged doors and an abundance of useful features, such as a control system, checking the shelf life of products, double cooling and many others.
- Czech Popular company Saturn. Saturn Home Appliances - giant holding supplier of Czech home appliances under the brand Saturn. Fridge Saturn - compact, inexpensive, economical option, very good for retirees or a small family.
- Italian Many prefer the manufacturer Candy. The company was founded in 1945, when Italy returned to normal life after World War II. The units of this brand are distinguished by classic lines of the body, excellent sound insulation and low vibration, retain the freshness of products three times longer than other devices.